Napredna pretraga

Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 950526

The Influence of Ethnicity, Sex and Subject on Facial Shape

(Erasmus +) Galloway, Jennifer; Farnell, Damian; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Katić, Višnja; Lahdesmaki, Raija; Pirttiniemi, Pertti
The Influence of Ethnicity, Sex and Subject on Facial Shape // 2018 IADR/PER General Session & Exhibition
London, UK, 2018. str. 1-1 (poster, međunarodna recenzija, sažetak, znanstveni)

The Influence of Ethnicity, Sex and Subject on Facial Shape

Galloway, Jennifer ; Farnell, Damian ; Zhurov, Alexei ; Richmond, Stephen ; Katić, Višnja ; Lahdesmaki, Raija ; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

Erasmus +

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Sažeci sa skupova, sažetak, znanstveni

2018 IADR/PER General Session & Exhibition

Mjesto i datum
London, UK, 25-28.7.2018

Vrsta sudjelovanja

Vrsta recenzije
Međunarodna recenzija

Ključne riječi
Face, Shape, Ethnicity, Sex, Multilevel.

Objectives: To determine the influence of ethnicity, biological sex and subject on facial shape using 3-level Multilevel Principal Component Analysis (mPCA). Methods: 3D laser facial scans were captured of 15-32 year old Caucasian English, Welsh, Croatian and Finnish males and females (n=250). 21 landmarks were manually plotted onto scaled grey-scale images. Multilevel PCA assessed ethnicity-, sex-, and subject-level variation individually. These differences were visualised as videos using average faces at 0.1 standard deviation (SD) increments to as many SDs as sample sizes would reasonably allow (+/- 2- 3SD). Results: 1. Ethnicity-level variation: The Croatians were most distinguishable. Differences between the ethnicities were found in all of the main facial features. 2. Sex-level variation: Female faces are shorter and rounder with smaller noses, less prominent brow ridges and shorter upper lips. The Finnish population was the least sexually dimorphic. 3. Subject-level variation: Most of the variation is at this level, therefore most of the differences between the faces are not explained by ethnicity or sex. Facial height, facial profile, inter-canthi width, nasal shape and lip competence describe the largest differences between the subjects. Conclusions: 1. Ethnicity influences all facial features. 2. Female faces are differentiable from male faces in all ethnicities, however sexual dimorphism was less pronounced in the Finnish population. 3. The majority of the differences in individuals’ faces are not explained by ethnicity or biological sex. 4. Multilevel PCA allows confounding factors to be analysed independently of each other. It provides a tool for exploring the influence of genetic and environmental factors on facial shape, which is the subject of further work.

Izvorni jezik

Znanstvena područja
Dentalna medicina


Medicinski fakultet, Rijeka,
Klinički bolnički centar Rijeka

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Višnja Katić, (339962)