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Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 908947

Evaluation of a smart toilet in an emergency camp

Zakaria, Fiona; Ćurko, Josip; Muratbegović, Ahmed; Garcia A., Hector; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; Brdjanović, Damir
Evaluation of a smart toilet in an emergency camp // International journal of disaster risk reduction, 27 (2018), 512-523 doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.11.015 (međunarodna recenzija, članak, znanstveni)

Evaluation of a smart toilet in an emergency camp

Zakaria, Fiona ; Ćurko, Josip ; Muratbegović, Ahmed ; Garcia A., Hector ; Hooijmans, Christine Maria ; Brdjanović, Damir

International journal of disaster risk reduction (2212-4209) 27 (2018); 512-523

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, članak, znanstveni

Ključne riječi
ESOS Smart Toilet ; operation ; usage ; field-test ; emergency

An experimental prototype of the eSOS (emergency Sanitation Operation System) Smart Toilet® was evaluated in an emergency settlement in the Philippines. The toilet was equipped with sensors and information communication technologies (ICT) for an efficient operation in an emergency setting. The field testing aimed at evaluating the toilet's service capacity related to the user frequency/intensity obtaining insight on the usage patterns in an actual post emergency situation. In addition, the novel features and functionality of the toilet were assessed. Operational performance of the toilet was assessed based on data collected from nearly 700 users within a 7-weeks period. The eSOS Smart Toilet has been properly operating during the evaluation period. A methodology to distinguish defecation and urination activities was developed based on determining discharges to faeces and urine tank. The toilet achieved up to 97% savings on water consumption compared to conventional toilets. The application of sensors and ICT features, combined with manually obtained data informed comprehensive usages data e.g. 62% of identified users were female users, 40% children, and 60% of the visits were for urination and 40% and for defecation. The accumulation of urine, faeces and grey water was measured to allow for a responsive maintenance resulting in optimized operation and increased interest to use the toilet. The field evaluation generated ideas for further improvements in terms of cost savings, services, and an overall vision for sustainability.

Izvorni jezik

Znanstvena područja
Biotehnologija, Informacijske i komunikacijske znanosti


Prehrambeno-biotehnološki fakultet, Zagreb

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Josip Ćurko, (302615)

Časopis indeksira:

  • Current Contents Connect (CCC)
  • Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC)
    • Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXP)
    • SCI-EXP, SSCI i/ili A&HCI
  • Scopus