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Out of sight, out of mind: Prompting to rethink in a base-rate task


Valerjev, Pavle; Dujmović, Marin
Out of sight, out of mind: Prompting to rethink in a base-rate task // Current Trends in Psychology 2017 - Book of Abstracts
Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, 2017. str. 104-105 (predavanje, međunarodna recenzija, sažetak, znanstveni)


Naslov
Out of sight, out of mind: Prompting to rethink in a base-rate task

Autori
Valerjev, Pavle ; Dujmović, Marin

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Sažeci sa skupova, sažetak, znanstveni

Izvornik
Current Trends in Psychology 2017 - Book of Abstracts / - Novi Sad : Filozofski fakultet Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, 2017, 104-105

ISBN
978-86-6065-434-4

Skup
Current Trends in Psychology 2017

Mjesto i datum
Novi Sad, 19-21.2017

Vrsta sudjelovanja
Predavanje

Vrsta recenzije
Međunarodna recenzija

Ključne riječi
Base-rate neglect, metareasoning, metacognition, judgement of confidence

Sažetak
Research in the field of reasoning has mainly been based on the dual-process approach. Type 1 processes are intuitive while Type 2 processes are analytical. Recent research shows prompting participants to rethink their decisions in reasoning tasks leads to a sizeable change in response selection. A well-known paradigm in this type of research was developed by Thompson and colleagues. Participants respond as fast as possible and after making a metacognitive judgement they are given additional time to rethink their answer. Our goal was to modify this approach by allowing participants to complete a block with the time pressure instruction, after a short break they would complete the same items at their own pace. We wanted to determine if this discontinuous presentation of the two blocks would result in significant rethinking or the participants would adopt the same way of responding regardless of instruction. To test this, we used a modified version of the base rate task. Participants (N = 48) were shown a single trait for a random person (e.g. Person A is tall), shortly after, they were shown information about the group composition from which that person was selected (e.g. The group contains 850 basketball players, and 150 physicians). Participants had to decide from which group was the person more likely chosen. Finally, they made confidence judgements for each decision. The traits were used to initiate a stereotypical response, while group composition provided information about mathematical probability. We constructed items in four experimental situations by manipulating congruence (of the intuitive and probability response) and base rate ratios (high or low). We predicted the usual influence of induced conflict: reduced confidence and prolonged response times regardless of measurement (first or second block). Three-way ANOVAs showed participants were systematically slower (F(1, 47) = 11.25, p < .01) and less confident (F(1, 47) = 5.74, p < .05) in the second block. A strong effect of conflict was present for both response times (F(1, 47) = 27.27, p < .01) and confidence judgements (F(1, 47) = 30.53, p < .01). As expected, participants were slower and less confident for conflict items for both blocks of measurements. The high conflict items (high ratio) induced a stronger effect than lower conflict items resulting in significant congruence by base rate ratio interactions for response times (F(1, 47) = 22.46, p < .01) and confidence judgements (F(1, 47) = 21.85, p < .01). These results in combination with a low proportion of response selection change and correlation based analyses confirm the prompt to rethink had little to no effect. We can conclude that simple repetition and familiarity does not lead to a significant change in the way participants approach this type of reasoning task. It seems that in order to observe changes in reasoning, like in the original research, the content of task has to remain in working memory until the chance to rethink is offered.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Psihologija



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
HRZZ 4139

Ustanove
Sveučilište u Zadru

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Pavle Valerjev, (228360)