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Multimodal analysis of startle type responses

Ćosić, Krešimir; Popović, Siniša; Kukolja, Davor; Dropuljić, Branimir; Ivanec, Dragutin; Tonković, Mirjana
Multimodal analysis of startle type responses // Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 129 (2016), 186-202 doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.01.002 (međunarodna recenzija, članak, znanstveni)

Multimodal analysis of startle type responses

Ćosić, Krešimir ; Popović, Siniša ; Kukolja, Davor ; Dropuljić, Branimir ; Ivanec, Dragutin ; Tonković, Mirjana

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine (0169-2607) 129 (2016); 186-202

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, članak, znanstveni

Ključne riječi
Startle type response ; multimodal analysis ; physiological ; speech and facial features ; airblast ; International Affective Picture System ; International Affective Digitized Sounds

Background and Objective: This article presents multimodal analysis of startle type responses by a variety of physiological, facial, and speech features. These multimodal components of the startle type response reflect complex brain-body interactions on sudden and intense stimulus. According to the individual specific startle type response, it is possible to differentiate healthy human reactions versus a variety of neural and motor dysfunctions or even some type of mental health disorders, like exaggerated startle response in posttraumatic stress disorder patients, etc. Therefore, proposed multimodal evaluation of reflexive and emotional reactions associated with elicited startle type stimuli and underlying neural networks and pathways may have additional potential in diagnostics of different psychiatric and neurological diseases. Different startle type stimuli can be compared in a sense of their elicitation power, i.e. their potential to elicit stress-related neural pathways, underlying biomarkers and corresponding behavioral reactions. Methods: Individual’s multimodal reflexive and emotional expressions during startle type elicitation have been assessed by corresponding physiological, speech and facial features on ten female students of psychology. Different startle type stimuli like acoustic startle and airblast probes, as well as a variety of visual and auditory stimuli of different valence and arousal, based on International Affective Picture System (IAPS) images and/or sounds from International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) database, have been designed and tested. Combined together into more complex startle type stimuli, such composite stimuli can increase elicitation power of underlying neural networks, and corresponding neurotransmitters and neuromodulators as well. The intensity and magnitude of selected startle type stimuli has been analyzed by effect size and median of dominant multimodal features, i.e. skin conductance, eye blink, head movement, speech fundamental frequency and energy. Significance of the observed effects has been evaluated by one- tailed t-tests. Results: The obtained results reveal specific physiological, facial and vocal reflexive and emotional responses on selected stimuli paradigms. Overall, composite and airblast paradigms resulted in largest responses across all analyzed features, followed by sound and acoustic startle paradigms, while image paradigm consistently elicited the smallest responses, which were statistically significant only for skin conductance. In this context, we can talk about power of elicitation of selected stimuli paradigms according to the aggregated magnitude of the participants’ multimodal responses. Conclusions: Applied experimental paradigm for monitoring individual response under stressful startle type stimuli might be useful in further research and broader evaluation of individual’s coping skills and capacities when people are faced with a variety of aversive emotional distractors. Prediction of how people will behave in emergency situations and how they will perceive and anticipate stressful events and environments through cognitive-emotional interactions may have real practical values.

Izvorni jezik

Znanstvena područja
Računarstvo, Psihologija


Projekt / tema
036-0000000-2029 - Adaptivno upravljanje scenarijima u VR terapiji PTSP-a (Krešimir Ćosić, )

Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb,
Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb

Časopis indeksira:

  • Current Contents Connect (CCC)
  • Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC)
    • Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXP)
    • SCI-EXP, SSCI i/ili A&HCI
  • Scopus

Uključenost u ostale bibliografske baze podataka:

  • EMBASE (Excerpta Medica)
  • Scopus