Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 764403
Mirjana Matijević Sokol, Studia diplomatica. Rasprave i prinosi iz hrvatske diplomatike, Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu – FF-press, 2014.
Mirjana Matijević Sokol, Studia diplomatica. Rasprave i prinosi iz hrvatske diplomatike, Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu – FF-press, 2014., Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu – FF-press, 2014 (monografija)
CROSBI ID: 764403 Za ispravke kontaktirajte CROSBI podršku putem web obrasca
Mirjana Matijević Sokol, Studia diplomatica. Rasprave i prinosi iz hrvatske diplomatike, Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu – FF-press, 2014.
(Mirjana Matijević Sokol, Studia diplomatica. Croatian Diplomatics – Studies and Contributions, Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu – FF-press, 2014.)
Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija knjige
Uredničke knjige, monografija, znanstvena
Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu – FF-press
pomoćne povijesne znanosti; diplomatika; hrvatska diplomatička baština
(auxiliary historical sciences; diplomatics; Croatian diplomatic heritage)
HRVATSKA DIPLOMATIČKA BAŠTINA U DJELIMA ISTRAŽIVAČA Pristup Nade Klaić diplomatičkoj građi i spisu Historia Salonitana maior Marko Lauro Ruić kao sakupljač i obrađivač diplomatičke građe Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski (1816.-1889.) i počeci sustavnog prikupljanja i izdavanja povijesnih vrela Uloga Franje Račkoga u izdavanju povijesnih vrela Tadija Smičiklas kao izdavač povijesne građe Karlo Horvat i pomoćne povijesne znanosti Notae epigraphicae, palaeographicae, chronologicae, historiographicae (…) u radovima Mihe Barade HRVATSKE VLADARSKE ISPRAVE I NJIHOVA TRADICIJA 1150. obljetnica darovnice kneza Trpimira Kralj Zvonimir u diplomatičkim izvorima Starohrvatski Solin u Kronici Tome Arhiđakona Neki aspekti diplomatičke tradicije u zapisima splitske crkvene provenijencije Samostanski memorijalni zapisi (libri traditionum) srednjega vijeka i uloga svećenika-pisara (pranotara) KRALJEVSKE POVLASTICE, FUNDACIJSKE ISPRAVE I NAJSTARIJA POVIJESNA SVJEDOČANSTVA GRADOVA Statuti gradskih komuna i povlastice slobodnih kraljevskih gradova s posebnim osvrtom na grad Koprivnicu Povijesna svjedočanstva o Zaboku Povlastica Andrije II. Varaždinu iz 1209. godine (povijesno-diplomatička analiza) Najstarije povijesno svjedočanstvo o Ivancu (diplomatičko-povijesna analiza isprave od 22. lipnja 1396. godine) Isprave su dokazi postojanja (o zbirci isprava iz Arhiva Muzeja Sv. Ivana Zeline) Najstarija povijesna svjedočanstva o Zelini Prvi spomen grada Slatine Fundacijska isprava samostana svete Marije u Crikvenici SREDNJOVJEKOVNE INSTITUCIJE Nostrum et regni nostri registrum. Srednjovjekovni arhiv Ugarsko-hrvatskog kraljevstva Struktura i diplomatička analiza isprava Kninskog kaptola
STUDIA DIPLOMATICA Croatian Diplomatics – Studies and Contributions Summary Foreword This book is a compilation of articles on diplomatic issues that have been published in journals or conference proceedings, and unpublished conference and public lectures. Although the book is composed of various articles, they are arranged into sections and are all connected by a common theme: Croatian diplomatic heritage. Introduction Croatian medieval diplomatic heritage is diverse due to the Mediterranean and Central European influence, as Croatia is part of both of these culture circles. Especially interesting are public documents from the early Middle Ages, which were issued by Croatian rulers: princes Trpimir and Muncimir and kings Peter (Petar) Krešimir IV, Zvonimir and Stephen (Stjepan). Twenty-nine of them in total have survived in various traditions. Private documents were established as valid in the High and Late Middle Ages within the circumstances of the renaissance of Roman law and communal societies. Institutions such as the notary public and loca credibilia (places of credibility, chapters or convents acting as places of authentication in Hungary-Croatia) were established. Public and private documents have been preserved in the archives of the Church and other institutions. Particularly important are registers – cartularies of these institutions. This diplomatic heritage required a critical approach at an early period of Croatian historiography. Ivan Lučić-Lucius, the father of Croatian historiography, first used this material for his chronicle. In the 19th century, Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski undertook the first systematic venture of collecting, interpreting and publishing diplomatic records. After the Yugoslav (Croatian) Academy of Sciences and Arts had been founded, it took over this endeavour and through its historical and philological class and committees established an organizational framework for the work on historical sources as one of its primary tasks. Franjo Rački played the most significant role in this undertaking, bringing together other scientists and scholars and launching the MSHSM series. Franjo Rački’s immediate successor was Tadija Smičiklas, who initiated the largest project of the publication of diplomatic records, Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae Dalmatiae et Slavoniae in eighteen volumes, which came out in the period between 1904 and 1990. Notary books were published separately, as well as scholarly papers evaluating the diplomatic heritage. Especially important are works by M. Šufflay, F. Radić, K. Horvat, F. Šišić, M. Kostrenčić, V. Novak, J. Nagy, L. Katić, Z. Tanody, D. Švob, M. Barada, A. Dabinović, R. Lopašić, A. Mayer, S. Antoljak, N. Klaić, J. Stipišić, M. Šamšalović, M. Zjačić, J. Lučić, L. Margetić, and many others. Textbooks have also been published (J. Stipišić, F. Šanjek, V. Kapitanović), and diplomatics has been taught and studied at Croatian universities as a part of history programmes of study. Diplomatic records were written mainly in Latin, which was the official language, but a rich legacy of Croatian documents written in the Glagolitic and the Cyrillic scripts also exists. 1. Nada Klaić’s approach to diplomatic documents and Historia salonitana maior One of N. Klaić’s greatest contributions to Croatian historiography are her papers in which she analyzed Croatian medieval diplomatic material. After the critical diplomatic “school” of F. Rački, F. Šišić, V. Novak and M. Barada, N. Klaić applied a very strict method, which was not always diplomatic, and declared most of the documents to be forgeries. Nevertheless, she based her conclusions on these documents. This ‘non-diplomatic’ method rightly caused controversies and was met with disapproval, and in a way it slowed down further development of this auxiliary science of history. N. Klaić also studied the document Historia salonitana maior, and her reading and interpretation of some of its parts sparked debate as well. 2. Marko Lauro Ruić (1736 – 1808), as a collector and interpreter of charters Marko Lauro Ruić, the notary of Pag and the district judge, the chancellor of Nona and a nobleman, Padovan doctor of both laws, and a historian of his island and the town of Pag, made a significant contribution to the collecting, treatment and interpretation of charters (diplomatics documents) as important historical sources. Apart from his capital historiographic work Delle Riflessioni Storiche sopra l’antico stato civile, ecclesiastico della città et isola di Pago o sia dell’ antica Cissa fatte da diversi autori, diplomi et altre carte pubbliche e private raccolte da Marco Lauro Ruic, where he presented all relevant charters in integral form, he also compiled the Code of Pag Charters (Paški diplomatarij), entitled Legum, statutorum, privilegiorum tum priscarum tum novarum sanctionum et rescriptorum Civitatis et Insulae Paghi in Venetorum Dominio feliciter degentis, amplissima collectio, cura, studio et opera Marcilauri Ruich, ad normam et usum civium et incolarum cum indice rerum locupletissimo accomodata et in partes divisa. Tomus primus is today known only in the form of a transcript, and based on this work Ruić can be evaluated as a charter collector and interpreter in the field of diplomatics. Owing to his legal education he was able to treat documents of his time in a proper fashion. The code of Nona, known as Privileggi della Magnifica Comunità di Nona, is also attributed to him. However, his treatment of the charters of Nona was a little different. This code was probably compiled in accordance with the interests of the new nobility of Nona when Austrian authorities entered the town. In the final analysis, Ruić should be viewed as the first link in the chain of collectors of historical sources, especially of charters, who emerged during the 19th century, and should be equally valued as Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, i.e. as one of the predecessors of F. Rački, T. Smičiklas and of the academic circle (the Yugoslav Academy of Science and Art). 3. Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski (1816–1889) and the beginning of systematic gathering of data and publication of historical sources Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski (1816–1889) is regarded as the founder of modern diplomatics in Croatia. He founded the Society of Yugoslav History (Družtvo za pověstnicu jugoslavensku) and the magazine Archives for Yugoslav History (Arkiv za pověstnicu jugoslavensku) and in it published articles on diplomatics and history. He also published two collections of diplomatic sources: Iura regni Croatiae Dalmatiae et Slavoniae in three volumes (1861–1862) and Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae Dalmatiae et Slavoniae in two volumes (1874–1875) containing documents relevant for Croatian history in the period between 502 and 1102. I. Kukuljević also began collecting documents written in the Croatian language (in Glagolitic, Cyrillic or Latin alphabets) and published the collection Acta croatica in 1863 with documents from the period between the 12th and 16th centuries. When it comes to the publication of historical sources, Kukuljević was self-taught, so the publication of his collection of diplomatic records Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae Dalmatiae et Slavoniae sparked a debate between him and F. Rački, as Croatian scholars around Rački had in the meantime accepted the already established rules of egdotics. The interpretive, i.e. critical, method was adopted for the publication of diplomatic documents. Kukuljević was among the first to bring the Baška tablet and the baptistery with the name Prince Višeslav to the attention of the scientific community. 4. The role of Franjo Rački in the publication of historical sources Franjo Rački (1828–1894), a follower of Theodor von Sickel, accepted his principles for the publication of diplomatic material. Both of them criticized Ivan Kukuljević’s diplomatic editions very severely and thus F. Rački laid a solid foundation for Croatian diplomatic discipline. The founding of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (now the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) brought a new enthusiasm in the scientific community and the establishment of an organizational framework needed for a systematic publication of historical sources as one of the fundamental tasks of the Academy itself. Modelled on Monumenta Germaniae historica, a similar series was launched that had all the attributes of the aforementioned German edition. The series was entitled Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (MSHSM) and its purpose was to publish all groups of historical sources collected in the following subseries: Scriptores, Diplomata (Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae), Leges et Statuta, Comitia. Franjo Rački worked on the earliest Croatian sovereign documents in particular and published several major works in this field in the Academy’s magazine Rad (vol. 35, 36, 45, 48), and in 1877 he published documents from the time of the Croatian national dynasty in a book entitled Documenta historiae Chroaticae periodum antiquam illustrantia. This work contains documents and other historical sources from the times of the Croatian dynasty assorted as Acta, Rescripta et synodalia and Excerpta e scriptoribus. Acta and Rescripta are diplomatic papers, i.e. documents, from the period of the early Middle Ages. The Academy established a Committee for the publication of historical and legal monuments in 1884, which brought together all the then eminent historians and diplomatics experts (Š. Ljubić, I. Tkalčić, T. Smičiklas, R. Lopašić, and the committee’s president F. Rački). It was then that a systematic collecting and publication of historical sources began. In Tadija Smičiklas (1843–1914) F. Rački found a worthy executor of this most important mission of the Academy. F. Rački also worked on a critical edition of Historia Salonitana by Thomas the Archdeacon of Split, but he died before he could complete the book, so Tadija Smičiklas finished it, and Historia Salonitana came out the same year Rački died, in 1894. 5. Tadija Smičiklas as an editor of historical sources Tadija Smičiklas earned an exceptional place among Croatian historians with his work in collecting and editing of historical sources, especially Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, although one should not overlook his other scientific achievements. This article gives a brief description of the level of development of the historical science known as egdotics – the principles, rules, and guidelines for publishing historical sources – in the period preceding the establishment of the Academy and the beginnings of systematic publication of historical sources, and the organisation of the Academy’s activity to that end. The fact that these efforts were an integral part of contemporary trends in the European scientific world is emphasised. Smičiklas’s activity in publishing narrative sources (Krčelić’s Annuae, the final redaction of the critical edition of Historia Salonitana (or Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinourm pontifcum) by Thomas the Archdeacon of Split) and collections of charters (his work on Acta dietalia and particularly on Codex diplomaticus) is reviewed in detail. The authors also point out Smičiklas’s contribution to the establishing of rules for the discipline of egdotics in Croatia based on the so-called interpretive method and to the education of younger scholars (M. Šufflay, E. Laszowski, M. Kostrenčić) and their training for editing of historical sources. 6. Karlo Horvat and auxiliary historical sciences Karlo Horvat is one of the Croatian historians who laid the foundations of modern Croatian historiography. He received his PhD in 1900 with the thesis Toma Erdödy Bakač, Croatian Ban (Toma Erdödy Bakač, ban hrvatski) and thus even at that time demonstrated his commitment to the research of the Early Modern period of Croatian history. In 1904 he went to Rome, where he devoted himself to the study of auxiliary historical sciences, and then to Paris to attend lectures at the famous Parisian palaeographic school the École Nationale des Chartes. Karlo Horvat came to the University of Zagreb in 1908. He became a private assistant professor at the University, and his name appears in the academic calendars from 1909 to 1918 as one of the teachers of history courses, especially those on auxiliary historical sciences with a focus on palaeography and diplomatics. His lifetime achievement is Monumenta historiam Uscocchorum illustrantia published in two parts as volumes 32 and 34 in the series MSHSM in 1910 and 1913 as well as his papers on diplomatics, that is to say the thesis The Development of the Papal Office from the Earliest Times to Innocent III (Razvitak papinske kancelarije od najstarijih doba do Inocenta III.) 7. Notae epigraphicae, palaeographicae, chronologicae, historiographica (…) in the work of Miho Barada In this article, the author discusses several short papers in which Miho Barada, an expert on palaeography and diplomatics, analyzed a series of important historical sources of diplomatic, epigraphic and narrative nature. In these essays, Barada attempted to correct or find a new way of reading, dating and explaining information obtained from public documents, epigraphs and literary texts. Tabella plumbea Traguriensis, the charters of Dukes Trpimir and Muncimir, Zvonimir’s oath, Koloman’s charter, Vekenega’s epigraph, the epitaph of Queen Helena (Jelena) and Thomas the Archdeacon’s Historia Salonitana were all subjects of Barada’s close examination. Finally, the analysis of these essays may lead one to conclude that Barada was really an excellent and impeccably educated medieval scholar, who based his conclusions and results upon a great wealth of specialized knowledge: of palaeography, diplomatics and related disciplines. While we may disagree with some of his conclusions and opinions and while academic historiography has moved on since Barada’s times, his research methods still provide an exemplary model to students of history. 8. 1150th Anniversary of Duke Trpimir’s Deed of Gift For the occasion of the 1150th anniversary of Duke Trpimir’s Deed of Gift, which is traditionally dated to the year 852 as suggested by Franjo Rački, the author summarises various historiographic views that have been presented to date regarding matters related to what is deemed the Croats’ oldest diplomatic document: Trpimir’s Deed of Gift is a certificate of the coversion to Christianity of the Croatian state. It was issued by Trpimir, Croatia’s first independent sovereign. In this document, he gave himself the title of Duke of the Croats (dux Chroatorum). Since the document has reached us through several subsequent transcripts rather than its original, it has provoked heated debates as to its authenticity. The author believes that the present form of Trpimir’s Deed of Gift is modelled on a document that was subsequently ‘refined’ and ‘enriched’ by the outcome of the placitum proceedings. The basic diplomatic formulae, i.e. the authentic core of this document, would consist of the protocolar elements (invocation, intitulation and dating), followed by a preamble (arenga) and an account of circumstances (narratio), including a decree (dispositio). In diplomatic terms, such documents are called ‘corrupt originals’ (acta depravata), whose authentic core includes various interpolated elements of other legal acts (acta interpolata). Also, pursuant to views presented by Lujo Margetić, but subject to some minor corrections made by herself, the author opts for and suggests 4 March 841 as the date of issue of this document. 9. King Zvonimir in diplomatic sources A considerable number of documents have been preserved from the time of the sovereigns of Croatian native dynasty (until the beginning of the 12th century). Most of them pertain to donations but none of them correspond to the time of their origin judging by their external characteristics. About ten royal documents are attributed to King Zvonimir. These have survived but only in later copies and elaborations that make their authenticity somewhat doubtful. Diametrically conflicting opinions have been expressed about them: from absolute acknowledgment of their authentic value and reliability to dispute and the opinion they may be complete forgeries. It was necessary to conduct a diplomatic analysis of these sources in order to find out to what extent they could be reliable at all. A number of Croatian historians took part in such research since the 17th century (Ivan Lučić-Lucius, F. Rački, F. Šišić, M. Barada, L. Katić, V. Novak, N. Klaić, J. Stipišić, L. Margetić and others). The author analyses some of the sources, offering her own solutions for several issues and suggesting a completely new interpretation of the most significant document, Zvonimir’s solemn oath of allegiance to Pope Gregory VII. 10. Early Croatian Solin in the Chronicle of Thomas the Archdeacon This article analyzes the section on Solin churches of St. Stephen and St. Mary of Otok from the 16th chapter of the Chronicle of Split by Thomas the Archdeacon. A connection with the so-called Zvonimir’s Deed of Gift for Bosiljina of 16 April 1078 is established. A diplomatic analysis of the document and an analysis of Thomas’ text makes it possible to assume the existence of a document issued by King Zvonimir to the Church of Split, i.e. its Archbishop Lawrence (Lovro), confirming the rights of ownership already granted by his predecessors over the Solin churches of St. Stephen and St. Mary of Otok. 11. Some aspects concerning diplomatic traditions in the records of the provenance of the Church of Split The author looks at two earliest and most important records of the provenance of the Church of Split. Using comparative analysis, she identifies the kartular of Sumpetar – The Cartulary of the Benedictine Abbey of St Peter of Gumay (Croatia) 1080–1187 – as a specific kind of memorial record (liber traditionum) which can be grouped with the gesta abbatum. The other record is the well-known History of Salona (Historia Salonitana), written by Thomas the Archdeacon of Split in the 13th century, which belongs to the genre of gesta episcoporum. Using several selected examples, the author shows how Thomas the Archdeacon relied on diplomatic sources from his own institution to write his capital work. Two such works of narrative nature but with specific approaches and use of diplomatic sources tie the Church literature of Split to the major centres in the West and represent two key points in the development of Medieval Latin literature in Croatia. 12. Memorial records in monasteries (libri traditionum) from the middle ages and the role of the priest-scribe (praenotarius) Within the written medieval heritage of church institutions, in particular of monasteries, some records have been preserved, which vary in the material on which they were recorded and the script that was used. They still have one thing in common, the fact that they all represent a memorial record about the founding of the institutions in question and the ways they acquired material assets. In historiographic and related literature these have been treated in different ways, either as diplomatic or as epigraphic records, or the like. These are some very well-known sources, considered to be first-class sources for the early medieval Croatian history. They include the Baška Stone Tablet, Supetar Lintel, Povlja Charter and the so-called Founding Charter of the Women’s Benedictine monastery of St Benedict in Split. Some of them were written in the Latin language and script, and some in the Glagolitic and the Cyrillic scripts. Although they vary with regard to language and script, a content-related and a formal and legal framework can be seen as their common basis, so they can all be classified as so-called memorial books. Priests, who were called scriptores in Latin and pisari in Croatian, played a crucial role in their making. These were: Teodor, Dobre Đakon, Kirne, Držiha and Ivan. On the one hand, they were mediators between the members of the elite who built and supported the monasteries, and all those coming generations who would get acquainted with their records for various reasons. On the other hand, however, they can be considered holders of the continuity of literacy and predecessors of the institutions of notary offices. Therefore, their records can be classified as something between diplomatic and narrative. 13. Statutes of urban communes and privileges of free royal towns with special reference to the town of Koprivnica In the 13th century under the Árpád dynasty and in the 14th century under the Anjou dynasty, towns in Slavonia gained royal privileges that were later the basis of their statutory rights. Modelled on Zagreb’s Golden Bull of 1242, the town of Koprivnica received the privilege of King Louis in 1358. A general feature of more or less all the privileges granted under both dynasties is that they confirm the towns’ ius statuendi or ius condere statua. This right was exercised in the election of mayor with judiciary power that guaranteed freedom to citizens and immigrants within the town boundaries, especially its highest form if the mayor-judge had the right to pronounce the most severe penalties (ius gladii). This was the reason why the most important provisions of almost all privileges pertained to the judiciary and in many towns they were considered fundamental laws. Thus, they were perceived as statutes and were so called and kept. At the beginning of the 15th century, several urban communities began collecting and listing benefits with the aim of some form of ‘codification’ of relevant norms by which the limited town governments in medieval Slavonia functioned. The impetus for the ‘codification’ of these standards may have been the decree of Sigismund II of 1405 called the ‘General Statute of Free Royal Towns’ because it sets the regulation of all aspects of life in free towns. Its content was a solid basis for towns with acquired privileges to put all their documents in order and to preserve the acquired privileges in accordance with the decree and adapt them to the new situation. Thus, at the beginning of the 15th century, in 1429, the town of Zagreb listed its privileges. It is interesting to note that this city law or statute begins with an extended confirmation of the Golden Bull of 23 November 1266, then comes the confirmation of the same document issued by Charles Robert twice (in 1322 and 1324) and Sigismund on 10 January 1406 along with some statutory provisions enacted in 1425 and 1429. Sigismund’s decree is also included. The most important part of this ‘statute’ of Zagreb is the provisions of the Golden Bull, primarily those concerning judicial authorities and town boundaries, while some obligations of citizens have been omitted. The provisions on legal authority listed in the Golden Bull, according to its revised form from 1266, are broken down into articles with appropriate headings simulating the appearance of a statute. This collection of provisions on privileges and statutory provisions compiled according to specific criteria and in accordance with the general laws of the kingdom can be considered a ‘protostatute’ of Zagreb in the broadest sense of the word. However, real statutes do not appear until the 16th and 17th century. This was also the case with Zagreb, which got its first so-called organizational statute at the beginning of the 17th century in 1609, the aim of which was to regulate the organization and operation of the town authorities. However, this was not an autonomous but an imposed statute, as indeed all the later commissional statutes (statuta commissionalia) were. They were made by royal commissioners who had examined existing practices and harmonized them with current laws and customs of the Kingdom. In 1659, a transcript of court provisions from Louis’ privileges for the town of Koprivnica was made and translated into the Croatian language (its kajkavian variety). The provisions were classified as points-articles, just as those of the Golden Bull in Zagreb’s ‘protostatute’ from 1429, imitating the external criteria for a statute, but also showing that these privileges were actually regarded as the statutes of town districts. It is important to emphasize that the privileges which the towns were given and which were close to statutes in some respects, while in some they significantly differed from them, were indeed the basis for the realization of a kind of self-government, and that they were followed as traditional customs (consuetudines) by supreme rulers over time and they became part of the Tripartitum. They also paved the way for later statutes. Koprivnica thus got its first statute, the commissional one from 1753, by relying on the tradition of its rights, resulting from its privileges and by going through a similar process Zagreb had gone through. 14. Historical evidence about Zabok In the legal document of 14 February 1636 (MODL 3612), i.e. its transcription of a lengthy trial which took place before the Ban’s court between Baltazar Zaboky as the plaintiff and all the female members of the Zaboky family as the defendants, old documents on four parchments have been preserved as evidence. These documents contain information about the earliest history of Zabok. The first parchment is the document of the Zagreb Archdiocese dated 1343, with which the investigation begins, the second is that of ban Nikola containing a copy of the aforementioned document from the same year, the third parchment once again contains the chapter document with copies of documents issued by King Louis and the Zagreb Archdiocese with reambulation of the Zabok estate from 1345, while the fourth parchment dates from 1604, and was issued by Martin Petthe de Hettew, the Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bačka, and it contains copies of the three documents mentioned above. They all relate to the land of Zabok which King Charles Anjou awarded to Petar Nuzlinov and thus he and his successors became noblemen through a royal grant. In 1575 Emperor Maximilian II (1564–1576) awarded Ivan Zaboky, his brothers Nikola and Ludovik and his sister Katarina an armorial patent (litterae armales) with their coat of arms. It states that after an investigation confirmed that all of Zabokys are of the old nobility and should finally be admitted, counted and registered in the assembly of true nobility of the kingdom. These documents correspond to each other and reveal that noble family of Zaboky belonged to the old nobility, who were granted land by the king, that it was named after a place name, i.e. its granted land, and that the town of Zabok got its name after this land. 15. The Privilege of King Andrew to the town of Varaždin, 1209 (Historical-Diplomatics Analysis) In this article, the author analyzes the charter issued by King Andrew to the citizens (hospites, burgenses) of the town (villa) of Varaždin (Warasd) in 1209. It was the first privileged town in the region of medieval Slavonia. The citizens were allowed to choose their own magistrate whom they called rihtardus. They were allowed to collect taxes without an official that would be appointed by the county head. Furthermore, they were allowed to regulate private property rights, they were guaranteed the freedom of movement and the right to collect custom duties. They were also allowed to make decisions about the boundaries of private land owned by the inhabitants of Varaždin. Historians and experts in diplomatics expressed doubt about the charter’s formal and textual historicity. After Z. Tanodi made a palaeographic and diplomatic analysis of the document and after the research dealing with the historicity of the content based upon a huge documentation prepared by M. Androić, the author of this article concluded that the charter issued by King Andrew dated 1209, and given to the citizens of Varaždin, regarding its outer features is an imitative copy. Considering its content, it is a forgery made within historical circumstances in the first half of the 15th century. It relies upon an authentic historical core strengthened by the quotation in the document issued by young king Béla in 1220. Since the content of Andrew’s charter was extended relating to the presumed acquired privilege, we can evaluate it as a distorted original or as acta interpolata. So, from the diplomatic point of view this document is not a complete, but only a partial forgery. 16. The oldest historical evidence of Ivanec (a diplomatic and historical analysis of the document of 22 June 1396) The document-privilege that the Prior of the Hospitallers and master of the castle (castrum) of Bela, Ivan Paližna the younger, issued to the residents of the ‘free village of Saint John’ (libera villa Sancti Iohannis) on June 22 1396 is a document that can be considered the birth certificate of the town of Ivanec. It regulated the relations between the residents of the ‘village of St. John’ and their master. It mostly contains a list of obligations and not rights, although a limited and defined feudal tribute in a sense represents freedom and privileges by virtue of the fact that it binds the feudal lord to the agreement as well. The original privilege that the ‘free village of St. John’ received from Ivan Paližna the younger did not survive ; however, a transcript exists, i.e. a certificate of Albert de Nagmihal, Prior of Vrana and Ban of Dalmatia and Croatia (1419–1426). The certificate was issued in Pakrac on the feast of the Chair of St.. Peter i.e. on 22 February 1421 and was authenticated by the seal of Prior and Ban Albert de Nagmihal. This certificate, issued by the successor of Ivan Paližna, Prior of Vrana Albert de Nagmihal in 1421, was made due to changes in mutual relations. The residents of the free village of St. John asked the prior of Vrana to reduce their working annuity from three days to one through their villicus, juror and some residents. This is why the document from 1396 and its amended certificate from 1421 are a single entity. From the diplomatic point of view, Ivan Paližna’s document from 1396 is an original, renewed in Albert de Nagmihal’s certificate which contains certain revisions to rights acquired previously and in and of itself had the power of the original of the renewed privilege. 17. Documents are evidence of existence (on the collection of documents from the Archives of the Sveti Ivan Zelina Museum) The Archive of the Sveti Ivan Zelina Museum keeps a diverse collection of diplomatic records. Most documents are private papers usually regulating various property relations of the residents of Zelina. Property issues were resolved at several levels – starting from the pastor, through judges royal (iudices nobilium) to the judicial table (tabula iudiciaria) of viceban, ban and the king himself. Particularly interesting are records of the dispute in family Plepelić at the beginning of the 15th century, as well as the record of 10 June 1579, documenting the trial proceedings that took place in Zagreb before Stjepan Gregorijanec, the viceban of Slavonia and the prefect (iupanus) of Zagreb and Križevci. It deals with the judicial investigations and contains the complete documentation (mandates and chapter reports). Disagreements and skirmishes which broke out among the inhabitants of the village were often resolved before pastors as confidants and reputable members of the community. In one of the documents, a settlement before the pastor was called “iudicium moderativum” (mild, prudent judgment). The documents are a source of information on the legal status of inhabitants of Zelina through the centuries, economic relations, the agriculture (particularly viticulture), place names, anthroponyms, etc. The collection of documents in the Zelina Museum is an important source of various facts, an integrated presentation of which is necessary. The whole life in Zelina through the centuries would be made available to researchers, historians, jurists, philologists, art historians, and agronomists. 18. The oldest historical evidence on Zelina This paper analyses the oldest documents which mention Zelina in the twelfth century, as well as those from the 14th century, which pertain to its status in the Middle Ages. The authenticity of these oldest documents and the data they contain is analysed. The paper also analyses the 1408 charter of the Ecclesiastical Chapter of Nagyvarad. It contains the most important privileges granted to Zelina during the fourteenth century by the bans of Slavonia: Mikes, Nicholas and Stephen, which established the status of the settlement as a free royal marketplace. The oldest charter was issued in 1328 by Ban Mikes, who later also issued an open charter (litterae patentes) in the form of a privilege containing the reambulation of the land of the marketplace Zelina. His successors in the position of ban also confirmed this privilege, changing its content slightly in relation to the newly established circumstances. The author concludes that the settlements of St. John Zelina and Četvrtkovec were named after the localities mentioned in the reambulation charter of the free royal marketplace of Zelina issued in 1329. Thus, Četvrtkovec was the marketplace in the valley, while St. John Zelina took over the name of the free royal marketplace of Zelina after the settlement had moved from the valley to a higher and safer locality. 19. The first mention of the town of Slatina The town of Slatina was first mentioned in a document of Zagreb Bishop Michael (Mihovil) issued on 1 September 1297 in Požega. In this document, Bishop Michael replaces one plot of land for another with the prior and canons of the monastery of the Order of St. Augustine in the village of Vaška. The document gives the boundaries of the plot of land the bishop gave to the convent in exchange, while the reambulation gives the name of Slatina as ZALATHNUK. This document was transcribed and confirmed by Zagreb Bishop Ladislaus (Ladislav), successor to Michael, at the request of Paul (Pavao), the provost of the same monastery, on 8 September 1329 in Čazma. Then at the request of provost Peter (Petar), the Pecs Chapter transcribed Ladislaus’ document along with Michaels’ on 26 May 1371 once again. Finally, on 2 April 1514 at the request of Blaise (Blaž), the pastor of Ivanić, the Čazma Chapter transcribed and certified the document of the Pecs Chapter, which contains transcripts of the two previous documents. The document of the Čazma Chapter of 2 April 1514 is kept in the Archives of the Archdiocese of Zagreb in Zagreb, Donationalia f. VIII, no. 3. It was written in humanist minuscule of the 16th century, and there are traces of the seal on the paper. 20. Foundational document of the Monastery of Santa Maria in Crikvenica On 14 August 1412, Nikola Frankopan issued a document to the monks of the order of St. Paul granting them permission to build a monastery next to the church of St. Mary in Crikvenica and endowed them richly in lands and other ‘dowries’ necessary for the monks’ sustenance. Nikola Frankopan’s original document did not survive. Today it is available and known only from records by D. Farlati and M. Sladović, and the National Archives in Budapest holds one of its transcripts (copia copiae) (sign. MODL 37132) written in humanist minuscule of the 18th century. In terms of its external characteristics, this copy can be considered a so-called imitative copy because it mimics the external appearance of particularly important charters issued at the time. The circumstances in which these copies were made are unknown. This copy states that it represents a translation into Latin of a document written in the Glagolitic script and the Croatian language, which is located in the archives of the order. The structure of the document, historical facts and a number of other historical, linguistic and diplomatic observations prove that this foundational document is a diplomatic forgery, but with a solid historical core. The text we know today might have been construed from some documents possibly existing at the time or only on the basis of rights acquired of over time and the possessions of the Crikvenica Monastery. 21. Nostrum et regni nostri registrum. The mediaeval archive of the Hungarian-Croatian Kingdom Newly discovered documents about the trial of the Zaboky family contain data which confirm that the Royal Register for the territory of Hungary and Sclavonia (nostrum et regni nostri registrum) was established in the period of Charles I (1301-1342), where the most important documents from the Royal Chancellery, concerning the bestowal of properties, liberties and other mercies, were filed. In Hungarian historiography, the organization and the functioning of that institution has been discussed on the basis of indirect information. A mandate of King Louis from 1345 clearly and undoubtedly describes the way in which the Register was kept. It was situated in the king’s court. Documents were inscribed in short form, but with all elements of a legal act. Deeds of donation might have been revised on the basis of existing inscriptions. The Register was placed under the care of vice-chancellor, who was given the title of conservator. The Royal Register for the territory of Dalmatia and Croatia was established after the peace treaty of Zadar, in the period between 1358 and 1360, when administrative reforms were implemented in that part of the Kingdom. Information about the organization and functioning of that register was collected from the data gathered from the document originating from 1370, recently discovered in the Chapter of Split, which the king’s commissioners used while they inspected the state of affairs in the region. The existence and functioning of the register influenced and strengthened the role and importance of the administrative system and of loca credibilia. This context allows us to view the raising of Dalmatian chapters into the status of loca credibilia in a new light, as well as the beginning of the practice of keeping chapter registers. 22. The structure and textual analysis of the documents of the Knin Chapter The Knin Chapter was active as a locus credibilis from the last quarter of the 14th century until the time when Knin fell under Turkish rule around 1522. The activity of the Chapter was determined by the fact that Knin was the seat of the ban, and later the banovac, and was thus a judicial seat. The Knin Chapter made authentic copies of documents, recorded agreements between private parties, and participated in judicial affairs, implementing the orders of a higher authority, i.e. the banovac, the ban, and the king. This means that the Chapter carried out investigations, kept records of land ownership, and wrote reports on its work. A textual analysis of the documents drawn up by the Knin Chapter indicates that it followed the models of chapters in continental Croatia, although it was more under the influence of Dalmatian chapters in the beginning of its activity.