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Ranosrednjovjekovni reljef iz Maloga Čajna kod Visokog s dodanim natpisom velikog kaznaca Nespina


Milošević, Ante
Ranosrednjovjekovni reljef iz Maloga Čajna kod Visokog s dodanim natpisom velikog kaznaca Nespina // Godišnjak - Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja, 41 (2012), 187-200 (podatak o recenziji nije dostupan, članak, znanstveni)


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Naslov
Ranosrednjovjekovni reljef iz Maloga Čajna kod Visokog s dodanim natpisom velikog kaznaca Nespina
(The Early Medieval relief from Malo Čajno nearby Visoko with great Nespina kaznac's added inscription)

Autori
Milošević, Ante

Izvornik
Godišnjak - Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja (0350-0020) 41 (2012); 187-200

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, članak, znanstveni

Ključne riječi
Malo Čajno; BiH; Ranosrednjovjekovni reljef
(Malo Čajno; BiH; The Early Medieval relief)

Sažetak
This text deals with circumstances of the finding as well as with the art and iconographic characteristics of an interesting relief accidentally dug out in 1947, north-east from Visoko, in Central Bosnia. Field ex- amination that followed afterwards determined that the relief once was a part of itinerary and interior de- coration of a smaller building. Supposedly, this was a medieval tomb construction based on the fact that in a nearby environment there were several other unor- namented tombstones as well as after the Cyrillic in- scription which was probably carved on the relief af- terwards. The afore mentioned inscription was, more frequently than the relief itself, an object of interest for researchers because it mentions two historical per- sonalities, Nespina kaznac the Great and his kaznac sister Bjeloka. Naïve nature of the carving is a highly stressed feature of the relief (210 cm long, 106 cm high and 7-10 cm thick) which is especially noticeable on the displayed human form. Its body, apart from the pro- tective belt wrapped around right arm and sharp tipped shoes, has no other clothing items displayed. The body is placed in a semi-profile while the head is shown en face. Its hands are of uneven length with its fists displayed on external sides so one gets an impres- sion of a hunter with two left hands. This form of naï- ve display of human figure is the characteristic of the early medieval period. Similarly, on a miniature from 9th century showing the transport of relics, a front porter in the scene has an awkward display of ”two right hands” of uneven length. Generally, this primiti- ve stone- carving method of the relief from Visoko can also be recognized on the relief displaying Palm Sun- 197 day from Venice, on the marble panel from San Saba church in Rome and on the relief from Žrnovnica in Dalmatia. All of these examples we used to compare with, originate from 8th century. Due to its looks and contents of the carved motif including hunting scene, the relief from Malo Čajno was frequently identified with similar motifs on stećci. However, it is different from stećci, not only in its details but also in its complete artistic creation. The human form and the animals, displayed next to it, are carved with numerous details that do not exist on si- milar displays on stećci. Hairy animals have their big grinned teeth stressed, dogs have leather collars and the hunter has a head with a precise display of hair and beard, facial details and a hairy neck. The entire composition is not as rigid as it is the case on stećci but rather very dynamic. The hunter is standing aside with his spear high up in the air, expecting an attack from the boar surrounded by three dogs. The wild be- ast already overpowered and threw under its feet one of the dogs, the another dog is charging energetically, while the third one is running away looking back to prevent being grabbed by the boar from the back. There is also some perspective in the whole perfor- mance because the running dog, carved in the second plain above the hunter’s hands, is a bit smaller than the others. J. Kovačević is the only one who discussed art, ico- nography and chronology of this relief. According to his opinion, this relief is created under the influence of the early Romanesque art of the western Europe, particularly following the monuments from eastern Adriatic coast where stylistically very similar reli- efs, in the way they display the human form, can be found. This implicitly suggests the dating of this relief into 11th century. He also stated that the medieval pa- nel from Malo Čajno is a chronological link between Late Antique displays and those that will numerously show up afterwards on late medieval stećci. Through the interpretation of iconographic content of the re- lief, he assumed that this is a very frequent ancient mythological and narrative motif whose interpretatio christiana lies in the early Christian and afterwards in the early Romanesque art. Symbolically, the hunter killing a boar is actually killing the devil or evil spi- rit which, according to gospels of Luke and Matthew, Christ forced into a body of a pig, staying there until its disappearance through submerging in water. After J. Kovačević there were no more texts addressing this relief with more attention. In the past literature, it was the most frequently mentioned topic in the papers dealing with the art of the Bosnian Me- dieval tombstones and stećci. Afterwards, M. Wenzel mentioned it first and later it was used several times by Š. Bešlagić who found the standpoint for his opi- 198 nion in the hunting scene and the shape of the spear that hunter holds in his hands. According to my opinion the stone panel with hunting scene relief from the vicinity of Visoko, due to its complexity in art form and the specific car- ving processing, cannot be linked to a single similar ornament on medieval and Late Medieval Bosnian tombstones. Those who tried to make a connection warn us that among numerous hunting displays on stećci, deer hunting scenes are prevalent, while boar hunting scenes are displayed eleven times. In that process dual analogies are stated because in all tho- se reliefs from the Late Medieval period, the animals were carved in a schematic way which makes a boar recognizable only with a lot of imagination. However, on a stećak from Donja Zgošća near Kakanj, which is rather impressive by its dimensions and ornaments, one hunting scene can be interpreted precisely like that, making it, in my opinion, a single such display made on stećci. The second indicator that was used to equalize the scene from the relief nearby Visoko with displays on stećci is a large spear that the hunter is holding in his hands. It is presumably a hunting spear that was in use during 14th and 15th century in Bosnia. Several similar spears were displayed on tombstones as well, but those items were significantly different from the one carved on our relief. It truly resembles the Early Medieval, Frankish spear with wings that was used in the second half of the 8th and throughout the 9th cen- tury. Several pieces of weapons like that were found in Dalmatian outback, in Hercegovina and in sou- thwestern Bosnia. Its shape and function are clearly indicated by tiny images in Carolingian church books and reliefs from Europe of the period. Of special im- portance for our issue is an analogy to the relief from Žrnovnica nearby Split showing a horseman attacking a bear with almost identical spear. Until recently this monument was considered as an early Romanesque stone-carving, but thanks to further detailed art and iconographic analysis it was shown that it belongs to pre- Romanesque period ; most likely second half of the 8th century. The displayed heads of the animals, the head of the boar especially, being very robust with semi-open jaws with long sharp teeth, could be used for chrono- logical dating of the relief from Malo Čajno. Thanks to such outlook, in comparison to their bodies, they mostly resemble the augmented animal heads carved on the specimen of the early medieval stone furnitu- re found in churches in cities in Dalmatia, Istria and northern Italy. The very motif of boar hunting, as previously no- ted, is taken from the repertoire of the ancient art. The sarcophagus with mythological theme of Me- leager hunting a Calydonian boar from Solin (today in Archeological museum in Split) is one of the best displays of such a motif from prestigious Attic work- shops. Several items from the Late Antiquity exem- plify the use of this motif also in the early Christian period as previously mentioned by J. Kovačević. A relief with a narrative display of boar hunting from the portico of a cathedral in Civita Castellana is a very good early medieval analogy to the scene on the relief from vicinity of Visoko. On the monument from Lazio, the hunt is taking place in the forest and hor- semen and infantry are participating. The boar sur- rounded by dogs is being attacked by one horseman with a spear with a small wings, the other one with a spear in his hand and a horn in his mouth is pursuing it, while two more infantry men, equipped in a similar fashion, are also taking part in the hunt. Those infan- try men are very similar to the hunter from Visoko including the presence of the naïve carving. Their legs are presented in profile, while torso and the heads are en face. Apart from that, they are carved in a similar fashion to the hunter from the relief in Bosnia with their thick triangular beards and long hair which in broad highlights is combed towards scalp. Display of perspective in superposition is also an interesting art analogy which is present on both of the monuments. The relief from Cività Castellana is considered to be Langobardian legacy and is usually dated back to 8th century. The relief with the added Nespina kaznac’s in- scription is specific for its carving method which is dominated by the use of serrated tools. Their use is not common in the Medieval Period and especially not on tombstones from the Late Medieval period in- cluding stećci, where there are no traces of it as well, as far as I know. On the other hand, such final proces- sing of the stone surface is common in Roman peri- od so we can assume that its use on our monument should be understood as antique and late antique tradition. Such carving technique was also applied to some other monuments in the area of today’s Bosnia. It involves bear head protomes which used to be ar- ranged in a sequence ornamenting the outer wall of apse of a palace within curtis in Breza, but also ram’s or moufflon’s head probably as a part of a capital from the same site. Clear marks of the serrated chisel and hammer indicate that these monuments should assu- medly be placed into approximately the same period. The building in Breza is differently dated and functio- nally explained. In my opinion it is not an old Chris- tian church but a palace within early medieval land property. Almost all fragments that used to decorate the interior and exterior of the building in Breza are not the characteristic of the Christian iconography. This is especially reflected in the displays of animals like bear, moufflon or ram which would be more ac- ceptable for more secular buildings like a palace or hunting lodge as a part of nobility residence of the Early Middle Ages. Earlier in the text we have tried to show that according to its artistic qualities and car- ving procedures the relief from Malo Čajno is very similar to the sculptures from Breza. Therefore, if we add its contents (narrative boar hunting scene) to tho- se indicators, an assumption that it used to be a part of the same ambience does not seem too daring. Such an opinion is more justified if we know that those two localities are only few kilometers apart. Hence, I con- sider the relief with boar hunting scene from Malo Čajno to be carved in the Early Middle Ages, roughly in the second half of the 8th century. I assume that it was once a part of ambience decoration in the interior of the palace or hunting lodge in Breza. Afterwards, in the following centuries of the Medieval Period, it was taken from there to the new position in Malo Čajno. At that moment it also got its new, funeral function which is shown through successively carved Cyrillic inscription originating from 12th or 13th century. Such re-use of some early medieval monument was not uncommon because in medieval Bosnia, simi- lar thing happened to the famous Kulin ban’s panel which was found nearby, in Biskupići.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

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Ustanove:
Filozofski fakultet u Splitu

Profili:

Avatar Url Ante Milošević (autor)


Citiraj ovu publikaciju:

Milošević, Ante
Ranosrednjovjekovni reljef iz Maloga Čajna kod Visokog s dodanim natpisom velikog kaznaca Nespina // Godišnjak - Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja, 41 (2012), 187-200 (podatak o recenziji nije dostupan, članak, znanstveni)
Milošević, A. (2012) Ranosrednjovjekovni reljef iz Maloga Čajna kod Visokog s dodanim natpisom velikog kaznaca Nespina. Godišnjak - Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja, 41, 187-200.
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@article{article, author = {Milo\v{s}evi\'{c}, A.}, year = {2012}, pages = {187-200}, keywords = {Malo \v{C}ajno, BiH, The Early Medieval relief}, journal = {Godi\v{s}njak - Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. Centar za balkanolo\v{s}ka ispitivanja}, volume = {41}, issn = {0350-0020}, title = {The Early Medieval relief from Malo \v{C}ajno nearby Visoko with great Nespina kaznac's added inscription}, keyword = {Malo \v{C}ajno, BiH, The Early Medieval relief} }




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