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Ustavno pravo na žalbu u građanskim stvarima : jamstvo ispravnog pravosuđenja ili relikt prošlosti?


Uzelac, Alan
Ustavno pravo na žalbu u građanskim stvarima : jamstvo ispravnog pravosuđenja ili relikt prošlosti? // Liber amicorum Mihajlo Dika : zbornik radova u čast 70. rođendana prof. dr. sc. Mihajla Dike / Uzelac, Alan ; Garašić, Jasnica ; Maganić, Aleksandra (ur.).
Zageb: Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 2013. str. 219-243


Naslov
Ustavno pravo na žalbu u građanskim stvarima : jamstvo ispravnog pravosuđenja ili relikt prošlosti?
(Constitutional right to appeal in civil matters : a guarantee of correct adjudication or a relic of the past?)

Autori
Uzelac, Alan

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Poglavlja u knjigama, znanstveni

Knjiga
Liber amicorum Mihajlo Dika : zbornik radova u čast 70. rođendana prof. dr. sc. Mihajla Dike

Urednik/ci
Uzelac, Alan ; Garašić, Jasnica ; Maganić, Aleksandra

Izdavač
Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu

Grad
Zageb

Godina
2013

Raspon stranica
219-243

ISBN
978-953-270-078-7

Ključne riječi
žalba, ustavna prava, Europska konvencija, građansko procesno pravo
(appeal, constitutional rights, European Convention, civil procedure)

Sažetak
Hrvatski pravni poredak jamči pravo na žalbu na vrlo velikodušan način. Ustavna jamstva tiču se ne samo kaznenog nego i građanskog te upravnog postupka. U tom smislu hrvatska ustavna jamstva nalaze se u raskoraku s ljudskopravnim standardima iz Europske konvencije za zaštitu ljudskih prava i temeljnih sloboda koja pravo na žalbu u građanskim stvarima načelno ne jamči, a razlikuju se i od pristupa velikog dijela europskih pravosudnih sustava koji radi osiguranja djelotvornosti i pravodobnosti pravne zaπtite te načela ekonomičnosti i razmjernosti diferencirano pristupaju tom pravu, djelomično ga ograničavajući, a djelomično isključujući u raznim kategorijama građanskih postupaka. In its Art. 18, the Croatian Constitution generously guarantees the right to appeal against the first instance decisions made by courts or other authorities. The right to appeal may be excluded only exceptionally in cases specified by law, if other means of recourse are provided. This constitutional guarantee found its place in Croatian law as an element adopted from the former constitutional provisions of the federal constitution and the constitutions of constituent republics in the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). In this paper, the author compares the nearly unlimited, universal right to appeal entrenched in the national constitution with the procedural standards of international conventions and the provisions of national laws of various European states. The main area of interest is the guarantee of the appeal right in the context of civil and commercial matters. The paper starts by setting forth various interpretations of the right to appeal in domestic law, and points to the fact that the constitutional guarantees in their broadest sense cover an extremely broad area: appeals are guaranteed not only against substantive decisions, but also against the procedural ones ; not only against the final orders and dispositions, but also against the interlocutory decisions ; not only against the decisions made by the lower courts, but also against the decisions of the highest courts and other authorities ; finally, appeal should be provided irrespective of the type and object of the proceedings, meaning that it should be guaranteed also in civil non-contentious proceedings, in cases of pure administrative nature, as well as in small claims procedures. The right to appeal can also be interpreted in the way that a means of recourse to a higher instance should encompass both factual and legal control of the fi rst instance decisions. All these elements found their place in legislative and doctrinal discussions, and had an important impact on the development of various norms and procedures in Croatia. In contrast, the European Human Rights Convention does not recognize the right to appeal in civil matters. Such right was also consistently denied in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. Based on such premises, the European Commission on the Efficiency of Justice of the Council of Europe advised the member states to explore the limitation of appeal options as one of the measures for increasing effectiveness and effi ciency of national civil justice systems. In this paper, the author lists various national legal systems of both civil and common law traditions that limit or exclude appeals in various matters (e.g. in small claims procedure). Exploring the historic roots and emergence of the constitutional right to appeal, the author compares the provisions of all Yugoslav constitutions from 1921 to 1974. The analysis demonstrates that the universal right to appeal against judicial decisions first occurred in the 1963 Constitution. In the text of the Constitution, it replaced the previous reference to the right to petition (right to complain against illegal acts of the state authorities), which existed in previous constitutions. While historic sources are scarce, it seems that such transformation of the right to petition to right to appeal was a product of several developments. One was the rejection of the separation of powers doctrine and the socialist idea that all bodies vested with public authorities (including courts and judges) have to be subject to “democratic centralism”, i.e. to hierarchical control by higher authorities. The other was the tendency to expand constitutional declarations of rights for political reasons, as a legitimizing element for the political regime. The split with Soviet Union and introduction of self-management doctrine led to weakening of judicial structures and procedures that excluded appeals, and to the transformation of other controlling instances, such as appeal (nadzor) by the public prosecutor (procurator). It is possible that the right to petition mutated to right to appeal also due to incorrect interpretation and translation of international conventions, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as the notions of “petition” and “legal remedy” were in official translations consistently translated as “appeals”. In conclusion, the author argues that the constitutional right to appeal from the Croatian Constitution (as well as from the other constitutions of post-Yugoslav states) has to be reinterpreted or abandoned. It contributes to some features of national law that have been found by the Strasbourg Court to be “systemic deficiencies”, such as the endless cycle of remittals upon appeals. Therefore, new understanding of the right to appeal should take into consideration comparative and international trends, and ensure flexible and appropriate approach that will consider right to appeal in the context of well-established procedural human rights such as the right to a fair trial. This approach should not exclude policies that balance the right to appeal with the right to effective judicial protection. If this will not happen, it may mean that various progressive policies of judicial reforms face the prospects of being discarded as unconstitutional. Among them are the exclusion of interlocutory appeals and appeals in small claims ; permission of fi ltering of appeals and re-adjudication upon appeal, prohibition of double remittals, and non- suspension of enforcement pending appeal. Therefore, a fundamentally different understanding of the constitutional right to appeal may be one of the preconditions for the success of reforms necessary to improve the functioning of the national judiciary, which has been continually facing crisis in the past decades.

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski

Znanstvena područja
Pravo

Napomena
Na nasl. str. i nadnasl.: Djelotvorna pravna zaštita u pravičnom postupku : pravosudne transformacije na jugu Europe.



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
066-0662501-2521 - Harmonizacija građanskog procesnog prava s pravnim sustavom Europske unije (Mihajlo Dika, )

Ustanove
Pravni fakultet, Zagreb

Profili:

Avatar Url Alan Uzelac (autor)

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Uzelac, Alan
Ustavno pravo na žalbu u građanskim stvarima : jamstvo ispravnog pravosuđenja ili relikt prošlosti? // Liber amicorum Mihajlo Dika : zbornik radova u čast 70. rođendana prof. dr. sc. Mihajla Dike / Uzelac, Alan ; Garašić, Jasnica ; Maganić, Aleksandra (ur.).
Zageb: Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 2013. str. 219-243
Uzelac, A. (2013) Ustavno pravo na žalbu u građanskim stvarima : jamstvo ispravnog pravosuđenja ili relikt prošlosti?. U: Uzelac, A., Garašić, J. & Maganić, A. (ur.) Liber amicorum Mihajlo Dika : zbornik radova u čast 70. rođendana prof. dr. sc. Mihajla Dike. Zageb, Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, str. 219-243.
@inbook{inbook, author = {Uzelac, A.}, year = {2013}, pages = {219-243}, keywords = {appeal, constitutional rights, European Convention, civil procedure}, isbn = {978-953-270-078-7}, title = {Constitutional right to appeal in civil matters : a guarantee of correct adjudication or a relic of the past?}, keyword = {appeal, constitutional rights, European Convention, civil procedure}, publisher = {Pravni fakultet Sveu\v{c}ili\v{s}ta u Zagrebu}, publisherplace = {Zageb} }