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Soil erosion under different tillage methods in Central Croatia

Kisić, Ivica
Soil erosion under different tillage methods in Central Croatia // Soil - School: What to learn from and what to teach about soils / Birkas, Marta (ur.).
Godollo: Szent Istvan University, 2012. str. 262-266

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Soil erosion under different tillage methods in Central Croatia

Kisić, Ivica

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Poglavlja u knjigama, pregledni

Soil - School: What to learn from and what to teach about soils

Birkas, Marta

Szent Istvan University



Raspon stranica


Ključne riječi
water erosion, crops, tillage

KISIĆ IVICA Professor Ivica Kisić, PhD, has graduated in 1987 at the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb where he achieved his M.Sc. (dipl. ing.agr.). After graduation, he started working at the College of Agriculture in Križevci, where he taught as assistant lecturer courses in Soil Science and Agricultural Amelioration, and also led exercises in Agricultural Chemistry and Basics of Agriculture. While working at the College of Agriculture, he was included into research work from the sphere of the Institute’s activities, mainly dealing with the problems of chemical amelioration of acid soils by liming with various lime materials. He also worked on the problems of anthropogenic soil degradation in intensive agricultural production, passage of organic matter through the soil and types of soil tillage. In the academic year 1988/89, he took a postgraduate course in Soil Science at the University of Zagreb Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb and defended master’s thesis “Characteristics of Soil Combinations and Their Capability in the Central Podravina Region” on 28 December 1992. Since October 1, 1994, he has been working at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of General Agronomy. On March, 3, 1998 he defended doctoral thesis “Effect of Soil Tillage Method upon Soil Erosion by Water on Pseudogley in Central Croatia” at the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, whereby he obtained the academic degree and title of Doctor of Science in biotechnical sciences, in the scientific field of agronomy. On June 15, 2008, Faculty Council of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb has elected him to the scientific position of full professor in the scientific area of Biotechnical sciences, scientific field of Agriculture, scientific branch of Ecology and the Environmental Protection. On Faculty of Agriculture he is leader of next courses: General Agronomy, Organic farming and Remediation of polluted soil. Professor Ivica Kisić has published cited scientific papers with 86 scientists from Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech, Finland, Hungary, Japan and Slovakia. So far, as the author or co-author, he has published seven books, and is also the author or co-author of ten chapters in scientific and professional books. He has participated in 115 scientific papers, as well as 256 technical papers, studies and expertise relating to issues of soil management and protection. A complete list of works can be seen in the Croatian scientific bibliographic database web site ( Professor Ivica Kisić started collaboration with Martha Birkas in 1998 at the International Conference of Soil Condition and Crop Production, which was held at the Szent Istvan University in Gödöllö. Since then, together they wrote one chapter in the book, three papers were published in Current Content databases and Science Citation Index whereas four papers were published in others bases (CAB Abstracts and Agricultural and Environmental Biotechnology Abstracts). Also, they had two plenary lectures and they presented three papers at international conferences. Objectives of all these papers were to imply how different tillage methods can mitigate the consequences of anthropogenic soil degradation and mitigation of upcoming climate change. He is a coordinator for the University of Zagreb, Rijeka University and the University of Split, in a bilateral project: Project on Risk identification and land-use planning for disaster mitigation of floods and Landslides in Croatia, organised by the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan Science and Technology Agency and Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatian. The project is implemented in the period of 2009-2014. From 2004-2007 he participated in the EU FP6 project: Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area. Also, from 2005-2008 he was leader of the LIFE project: Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot project, where he was the principal investigator on the development of monitoring soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. So far in his academic career he participated in 9 different multi-annual research projects that were conducted at the Croatian Ministry of Science. He has also been the leader of three doctoral and two master's theses, 36 graduate papers, as well as 9 of the final papers at the Faculty of Agriculture and 3 final papers at the Postgraduate specialist course Ecoengineering. During the mandate period of 2002-2006 he was the President of the Croatian Society of Soil Science and he is also a member of the Croatian Water Pollution Control Society and the Croatian Drainage and Irrigation Society. Regarding international organizations he is a member of International Union of Soil Science, European Society for Soil Conservation and International Soil Tillage Research Organization. He participated in drafting Croatian Acts and Regulations governing organic crops and livestock farming, as well as the Agricultural Land Act and Regulations regarding soil contamination. He is a member of the National Council for Organic Agriculture and the National Council for Combating Desertification. He was a member of the Organizing Committee of the EUROSOIL congress that was held in Vienna in August 2008. He received the annual Croatian Waters award for the best dissertation in 1998, as well as the annual Croatian Waters award for the best scientific paper published in 2006. In 2007. he received the Honorary Advisor award granted by the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Gödöllő, Hungary. Crucial year in personal scientific education was 1994 when he went from the College of Agriculture in Krizevci and came at Faculty of Agriculture, Department of General Agronomy in Zagreb. He was immediately involved in all scientific and professional projects of the Department which were referred for soil tillage and fertilization, plant breeding systems and soil protection. In the field of soil protection, especially in investigations of soil degradation stage and soil pollution, as well as remediation of contaminated soils, he has achieved the greatest success. Of all scientific areas, problem of soil erosion by water particularly marked his scientific career. On the stationary field experiment which is set up in Blagorodovac near Daruvar, he has investigating the impact of different tillage methods on the amount of sediment erosion for seventeen years. For this reason, we will briefly explain soil erosion by water and the results achieved in the investigation on field experiment near Daruvar. First of all what is erosion? Soil erosion by water is a multiply harmful process, which damages or destroys the two essential natural resources in agriculture – soil and water. Soil erosion is a natural process that cannot be fully prevented, but it may be reduced to a tolerable level by appropriate land management – tillage and plant cover. The primary goal of the investigations is to determine the characteristics of erosion on Stagnosols and then to seek for the answer to the question whether it is possible, and to which extent, to reduce erosion to a tolerant level by applying different treatments of soil tillage in the growing of agricultural crops. Seventeen years stationary measurements of soil loss by erosion, carried out on Stagnosols under different tillage systems in four crop rotations: maize – soybeans – winter wheat – oil rape – spring barley with sown-in soybeans, point to the following conclusions: Highest soil losses by erosion in all research years were recorded in the control-standard treatment, representing tilled but unsown-bare soil. They were several times higher than tolerated erosion (T values) estimated at 10 t-1 ha-1 year-1. In the investigated crop sequence in two rotations, the average soil loss in the control treatment amounted to 72.09 t/ha. Also in the up/down the slope ploughing and sowing soil losses (13.71 t/ha) surpassed the tolerated value of 10 t/ha. In all other ploughing treatments, the ten-year average erosion was within the tolerated loss limits. The results indicate that soil losses by erosion are much higher in the production of spring row crops (maize and soybeans) compared to winter crops (wheat and oil seed rape) and spring barley with soybeans. Highest soil losses in row crops production - over 80% annual erosion, occur in the seedbed stage – immediately upon sowing. The period from May to mid-June is the riskiest period for water erosion in the agroecological conditions of central Croatia if low-density spring row crops are grown in the field. There are no critical periods of high risk in the production of winter crops, and negligible erosion is uniformly distributed throughout the whole growing season. Soil type and position in the relief are constants that do not change during the year and their influence on erosion is unchangeable. Precipitation (quantity and intensity) and the crop are changeable indicators during the year. Joint action of all four indicators creates erosion in a particular region. The trend of increasing participation of low-density spring crops compared to high-density winter and fodder crops on the arable areas in the Republic of Croatia indicates that the problem of water erosion on sloping terrains will be increasingly present. Erosion risk is high in the production of spring row crops and ploughing down the slope, which is practiced in the region under study, whereas ploughing across the slope in the production of the same crops, entails low erosion risk. Erosion risk is insignificant in the production of winter crops and spring barley with soybeans in all ploughing treatments. Based on the results of our seventeen year investigations, we recommend that soils susceptible to erosion, such as Stagnosols, should be ploughed across the slope, and that solely high-density crops or fodder crops should be grown on more inclined slopes. Such tillage protects the soil from erosion and water recourses from immission of pollution with different agrochemical agents, commonly applied in intensive crop production. Unfortunately, the present trend of fragmentation of arable areas in Croatia obstructs the use of this tillage system. We think that the continuation of investigations will additionally enlighten these problems and fill the «gaps», that is, insufficient knowledge of soil erosion by water in our conditions. Possible extension of investigations to new locations and soil types would be welcome. And last but not least. We find that erosion control in the future requires a new, integral approach. Instead of the so far individual (personal) scientific attitudes to the problems of soil protection from erosion, an integral approach to erosion control should be adopted. Relevant works should include teams of specialists from various fields, such as agronomists, geologists, hydro technicians, foresters, etc. The so far isolated and scattered activities in agriculture, forestry, water management, energetic, traffic and similar disciplines aimed at fighting soil erosion and torrential watercourses were not governed by a unique conception of managing torrential watersheds and erosion areas. This seems to be the reason for the relatively scarce investigations of erosion in Croatia, which is quite disproportional to the problem encountered over the entire state territory. The ultimate aim is to preserve the environment for the coming generations.

Izvorni jezik

Znanstvena područja
Poljoprivreda (agronomija)


Projekt / tema
178-0672345-2767 - Biljno-uzgojne mjere za poboljšanje kakvoće proizvoda iz ekološke poljoprivrede (Kisić, Ivica, MZOS - )
178-1780692-0694 - Konzervacijsko gospodarenje na tlima izloženim djelovanju erozije vodom (Bašić, Ferdo, MZOS - )

Agronomski fakultet, Zagreb


Avatar Url Ivica Kisić (autor)

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Kisić, Ivica
Soil erosion under different tillage methods in Central Croatia // Soil - School: What to learn from and what to teach about soils / Birkas, Marta (ur.).
Godollo: Szent Istvan University, 2012. str. 262-266
Kisić, I. (2012) Soil erosion under different tillage methods in Central Croatia. U: Birkas, M. (ur.) Soil - School: What to learn from and what to teach about soils. Godollo, Szent Istvan University, str. 262-266.
@inbook{inbook, author = {Kisi\'{c}, I.}, editor = {Birkas, M.}, year = {2012}, pages = {262-266}, keywords = {water erosion, crops, tillage}, isbn = {978-963-269-299-9}, title = {Soil erosion under different tillage methods in Central Croatia}, keyword = {water erosion, crops, tillage}, publisher = {Szent Istvan University}, publisherplace = {Godollo} }

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