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Use of Cu Fungicides in Vineyards and Olive Groves

Vitanović, Elda
Use of Cu Fungicides in Vineyards and Olive Groves // Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases / D. Dhanasekaran, N. Thajuddin and A. Panneerselvam (ur.).
In Tech: In Tech, 2012. str. 281-298

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Use of Cu Fungicides in Vineyards and Olive Groves

Vitanović, Elda

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Poglavlja u knjigama, znanstveni

Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases

D. Dhanasekaran, N. Thajuddin and A. Panneerselvam

In Tech

In Tech


Raspon stranica


Ključne riječi
Cu fungicides, vineyards, olive groves, heavy metals

Losses caused by pests, diseases and weeds on all agriculture crops in Europe are considerably heavy (28.8 %). They can be reduced in different ways: by law regulations, professional set up of orchards, breading less sensitive or resistant crops, different technical measures of production, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical measures. The use of pesticides to control microbial, fungal and insect plant pests has long been a feature of conventional agricultural practice and their use has made it possible to increase crop yields and food production. Many of these pesticides have toxic effects that are not confined to their target species. Their application may have negative impact on organisms that benefit a wider agro ecosystem and their use may result in an increased accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. Even if just in traces, heavy metals are the primary sign of soil and groundwater contamination. There are various causes that lead to the pollution of agricultural soils and the problem of soil contamination with heavy metals is a central and current issue in modern ecology. Fungicide use is the most important component of pest and disease control programs in vine and olive production systems. This is because some fungal diseases have a potential to destroy horticultural crops and make them unsalable. The practical and economic problems for producers are more acute in organic production systems than in the conventional ones, because the use of fungicides in organic production is much more limited. Whilst several synthetic active ingredients are available in the conventional production, these are not allowed in organic agriculture, except for certain copper products, the use of which is considered to be traditional organic practice. In most countries copper fungicides can be used in organic crop production. Copper fungicides have been used in pome and stone fruit orchards and vineyards for more than 100 years. The most common fungal diseases controlled by copper fungicides in vineyards are Plasmopara viticola (B. and C.) Berl. and De Toni and Phomopsis viticola Sacc. Copper fungicides such as Bordeaux mixture (a complex of copper sulphate and lime) has been used in viticulture as a plant protection product against the stated fungal diseases since the 18th century. This was the first fungicide to be used on a large scale worldwide. Even today, the only fungicides allowed under organic standards and effective against Plasmopara viticola are based on copper hydroxide and copper sulphate. Moreover, other copper compounds have been introduced, including copper carbonate, copper ammonium carbonate, copper hydroxide, copper oxide, copper oxychloride, copper oxychloride sulphate, etc. However, their long-term application and subsequent wash-off from the treated plants have resulted into an extensive copper accumulation in vineyard soils. According to the information gathered to date, a long-term use of copper fungicides in viticulture results in the ingression of significant quantities of copper, which remain in the surface soil layer at 0 - 0.2 m, as has been verified by a number of researchers. The bulk of copper accumulated in leaves and soil after the treatment of the vine with copper fungicides returns to the surface layer of soil through tillage or the biological cycle. Copper can simultaneously be both a micronutrient and a toxic element, depending on its concentration in the soil. In the soil copper is bound to organic matter, to Fe and Mn oxides, adsorbed to clay surface, it is present in the matrix of primary silicate minerals, in secondary minerals or within amorphous matter. The sum of it all can be defined as total copper in soil. Determination of the total content of metals in soils is an important step in estimating the hazards to the vital roles of soil in the ecosystem, and also in comparison with the quality standards in terms of the effects of pollution and sustainability of the system. From the ecotoxicological aspect, it is equally important to determine the bioavailability of copper accumulated in vineyards. Copper availability to biota and its mobility are the most important factors for soil environment. Copper bioavailability is influenced not only by physical and chemical properties of the soil, but also by environmental factors such as climate, biological population, and type and source of contaminants. Copper is toxic for soil organisms and plants, expecialy copper contents as high as those reported in vineyard soils. Even low concentrations of copper in soil may result in long-term effects including reduced microbial and earthworm activity and subsequent loss of fertility. Humans are exposed to copper from many sources. 75 to 99% of total copper intake is from food. Possible undesirable effects of copper fungicides on the health of workers exposed to the chemicals and consumers of crop products treated with them are a major concern. In humans, acute ingestion of copper sulphate may cause gastrointestinal injury, haemolysis, methemoglobinemia, hepatorenal failure, shock, or even death. In olive orchards, olive leaf spot disease is caused by fungus Spilocea oleaginea Cast. Today, olive leaf spot is a significant and serious problem in almost all our olive orchards, including those with organic production. It adversely affects fertility of infected trees, and its recurrence year after year causes degradation of whole olive trees, particularly the young ones. Olive leaf spot is readily controlled by copper fungicides. For effective olive protection, several applications are necessary in one year. Concentration of applied copper fungicides must be strictly under control because of possible copper residues in olive fruits and consequently in oil, which is restricted by law. In years with particularly warm and rainy autumns, one treatment with copper fungicides in autumn is not enough, but it is necessary to perform at least three treatments with copper fungicides. Undoubtedly, increasing the number of treatments in autumn renders it impossible to fully observe all the regulations. On the other hand, if the regulations are fully observed, the question arises whether it is actually possible to adequately protect olive groves against this unpleasant and rising disease at all.

Izvorni jezik

Znanstvena područja
Poljoprivreda (agronomija)


Projekt / tema
091-0910468-0342 - Agroekonomske značajke razvoja obiteljskih poljoprivrednih gospodarstava (Elda Vitanović, MZOS)
091-0910468-0364 - Istraživanje i razvoj okolišu povoljnih metoda u zaštiti masline od štetnika (Miro Katalinić, MZOS)

Institut za jadranske kulture i melioraciju krša, Split


Avatar Url Elda Vitanović (autor)

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Vitanović, Elda
Use of Cu Fungicides in Vineyards and Olive Groves // Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases / D. Dhanasekaran, N. Thajuddin and A. Panneerselvam (ur.).
In Tech: In Tech, 2012. str. 281-298
Vitanović, E. (2012) Use of Cu Fungicides in Vineyards and Olive Groves. U: D. Dhanasekaran, N. (ur.) Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases. In Tech, In Tech, str. 281-298.
@inbook{inbook, author = {Vitanovi\'{c}, E.}, editor = {D. Dhanasekaran, N.}, year = {2012}, pages = {281-298}, keywords = {Cu fungicides, vineyards, olive groves, heavy metals}, isbn = {978-953-307-804-5}, title = {Use of Cu Fungicides in Vineyards and Olive Groves}, keyword = {Cu fungicides, vineyards, olive groves, heavy metals}, publisher = {In Tech}, publisherplace = {In Tech} }

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