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Nekropole rimskodobne Murse

Göricke-Lukić, Hermine
Nekropole rimskodobne Murse, Osijek: Muzej Slavonije, 2011 (doktorska disertacija)

Nekropole rimskodobne Murse
(The necropolises of Roman Mursa)

Göricke-Lukić, Hermine

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija knjige
Autorske knjige, doktorska disertacija, znanstvena

Muzej Slavonije





Ključne riječi
Osijek; Donja Panonija; Mursa; nekropole rimskog doba; žarni i skeletni ukopi; 1-5. st. po Kr.; nadgrobni spomenici; grobni prilozi
(Osijek; Lower Pannonia; Mursa; Roman necropolises; urn and skeleton burials; from the1st to 5th centuries; grave markers; grave goods)

The ancient Mursa (Colonia Aelia Mursa) was situated in the area of the present Lower Town of the city of Osijek, on the elevated right bank of the Drava. Since the site has been researched only at a minimum level it is at present not possible to assess the borders of the necropolises but only parts of particular burial land areas. There were goods in 82 burials out of total 426 burials (43 urn, 375 skeleton, 7 unspecified), which indicates general necropolises devastation. It is important to point out that they have been identified by chance without any professional monitoring. There are 70 burials researched on the basis of protective archaeological excavation. The presence analysis of necropolises shows that northern necropolis is represented by 40, eastern by 134, western by 96 and southern by 114 burials. Family burials made of 8 graves and 35 graves with dislocated grave goods and grave markers make a separate group. The earliest burials by incineration rite were known in Mursa in areas of eastern and southern necropolises where there were separate plots determined for burial of family members or members of the natives or settlers who already were Romanized inhabitants of Mursa, whose burial ritual preserved specific native Pannonian- Celtic, non-Roman components ( burials 8 ; 27-31 ; 70 ; 93 ; 94 ; 322-325 ; 383). From the second half of the 1st century along with cremating rites in northern (burial 146) and eastern (burial nr. 111) necropolises the skeleton burial rites took place at the same time (sporadically). There are 33 grave markers out of which the most numerous derive from eastern necropolis – 14 items, northern-2, western-2, southern 3 items. Unspecified i.e. dislocated were 12 grave markers. Grave markers according to the forms and exterior features: stelae (11), rectangular gravestones (12), covering items (2), enclosing items (1), sarcophagi (25). The Mursa sarcophagi group comprises 25 registered sarcophagi i.e. according to their origin from necropolises- northern (10), eastern (3), western (5), southern (4), family burials (2), dislocated (10). Out of 25 registered items 19 have been 19 preserved i.e. in northern necropolis 1, eastern 1, western 3, northern 4, and dislocated 10. The largest and oldest eastern necropolis with continuous burials from the 1st to 5th centuries has been devastated and completely reorganised several times. Systematic devastation of the necropolis has been confirmed by the fact that in the oldest eastern necropolis there are no massive gravestones that could be parts of large architectural complex gravestone. At the same time we find them in the Drava river bed, solely near the Roman bridge columns. Parts of sarcophagi are very rarely found in the Drava, which would mean that they were not the objects of general liquidation. Sarcophagi in Mursa have been found several times in situ. Before their mass usage the bridge had been reconstructed, columns reinforced on a few occasions in the time of the early Empire. Explicit concentration and continuity of burials in eastern necropolis from the early Empire until late Ancient times show that eastern town bulwark spread to the West ( and not to te East as generally assumed), from the present square in Lower Town. The spreading outline shows that the wall mantle mosty probably included substantially less town area than the one assumed at 516.800m2 (PINTEROVIĆ 1956:73). Burial concentration within scattered burial areas of the northern necropolis allows the conclusion that northern bulwark did not exist. It is the members of a new religion- Christianity that burial in lead coffins are ascribed to (in situ stone sarcophagus find, grave 122, northern necropolis, on the corner of Crkvena and Zmaj Jovina streets with goods symbolizing the Eucharist ; grave 34, eastern necropolis, Sarajevska street ; grave nr. 246, western necropolis, western side of Vukovarska street ; graves 283-287, southern necropolis, on the corner of Frankopanska and Huttlerova streets-Silos) which were unfortunately destroyed and plundered. Destroyed graves with barrel-shaped ceiling covered in pink plaster ( graves 361-364, crossroads of Frankopanska and Bruno Bjelinski streets) were in a separate zone. Today, bearing in mind that the site has insufficiently been researched, the entire archaeological legacy of Mursa necropolises with a small number of military inscriptions (mostly eastern necropolis) does not confirm the common hypothetical explanation of Mursa as a permanent military camp. Mursa was unlike Emona ( Legio XV Apollinaris), Siscia (Legio IX Hispana), and Ptuj ( Legio VIII Augusta) a temporary military residence. The first garrison in Mursa were Ala II. Hispanorum Arvacorum and Cohors II. Alpinorum, as witnessed by gravestones (2) of their members. Archaeological legacy of necropolises shows that in precolonial phase Mursa had a civil settlement with urban structure, supporting infrastructure, roads next to which burial areas of Romanized native inhabitants, native representatives with Roman civil rights, native representatives of land aristocracy, free persons, settled veteran soldiers, tradesmen gradually were set. Interestingly, in 124 Hadrian established only Mursa by a colony while other towns he founded obtained municipal right. The reason for that was probably the existence of military core in Mursa since by establishing a colony the community gained civity and municipial constitution, by which the Ilatics and others became the Mursenses, the citizens of a colony (SUIĆ 1985:64). The necropolises of Mursa were formed by burials for the majority of civil inhabitants except for eastern necropolis that besides civil probably had one burial area with early military graves - Ala II. Hispanorum Arvacorum and Cohors II. Alpinorum. In the period from the precolonial phase to the colony status Mursa must have experienced a significant rise influenced crucially by economic prosperity. Economic basis of the 1st century Roman government was native aristocracy and in the 2nd century the growing group of veterans in the immediate vicinity of the limes securing the market.

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski, engleski

Znanstvena područja


Projekt / tema
293-0000000-0853 - Numizmatička topografija Hrvatske (Tomislav Bilić, )

Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Göricke-Lukić, Hermine
Nekropole rimskodobne Murse, Osijek: Muzej Slavonije, 2011 (doktorska disertacija)
Göricke-Lukić, H. (2011) Nekropole rimskodobne Murse. Osijek, Muzej Slavonije.
@book{book, author = {G\"{o}ricke-Luki\'{c}, H.}, translator = {Miheli\'{c}, Sanjin}, year = {2011}, pages = {275}, keywords = {Osijek, Lower Pannonia, Mursa, Roman necropolises, urn and skeleton burials, from the1st to 5th centuries, grave markers, grave goods}, isbn = {978-953-6191-50-5}, title = {The necropolises of Roman Mursa}, keyword = {Osijek, Lower Pannonia, Mursa, Roman necropolises, urn and skeleton burials, from the1st to 5th centuries, grave markers, grave goods}, publisher = {Muzej Slavonije}, publisherplace = {Osijek} }