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Etička misao Marka Marulića


Balić, Davor
Etička misao Marka Marulića 2011., doktorska disertacija, Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb


Naslov
Etička misao Marka Marulića
(Ethical Thought of Marko Marulić)

Autori
Balić, Davor

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Ocjenski radovi, doktorska disertacija

Fakultet
Filozofski fakultet

Mjesto
Zagreb

Datum
04.07

Godina
2011

Stranica
X + 267

Mentor
Čović, Ante ; Martinović, Ivica

Ključne riječi
Marko Marulić; "Repertorij"; "Institucija"; "Parabole"; "Evanđelistar"; filozofija; etika; blaženstvo; najviše dobro; istina; laž; tjelesna i duhovna dobra; mudrost; mudrac
(Marko Marulić; "Repertorium"; "De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum"; "Quinquaginta parabolae"; "Evangelistarium"; philosophy; ethics; beatitude; the highest good; truth; lie; bodily goods; spiritual goods; wisdom; sage)

Sažetak
Etička misao renesansnog mislioca Marka Marulića (1450-1524) u radu je istražena tako što su obrađena njegova četiri glavna latinska djela: "Repertorium", "De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum", "Quinquaginta parabolae" i "Evangelistarium". Marulićeva etika u njima se očituje dvojako. "Repertorij" nam nudi zapise kojima je Marulić odredio neku etičku natuknicu, dok nam preostala tri djela pružaju uvid u Marulićev etički nauk. Od 388 natuknica, Marulić je u "Repertorij" uvrstio čak 170 onih koje pripadaju filozofskoj etici. Uz 27 etičkih natuknica najveći broj svojih zapisa pritom je temeljio na spisima kojima su autori bili filozofi. "Repertorij" je kompendij koji nam pruža najranije svjedočanstvo o Marulićevim sklonostima etičkim temama. Svoj nauk o istini i laži Marulić je najpotpunije izložio u "Instituciji", a u poglavlju koje je naslovio »De veritate colenda mendacioque fugiendo«. Ponudio je deset primjera kojima nas je želio poučiti da nikada ne smijemo odustati od kazivanja istine. Kada je naučavao o laži, podastro je čak trideset i jedan primjer. U nauku o laži zastupao je stajalište da je ponekad opravdano i nužno pretvarati se, zataškavati i lagati. U "Evanđelistaru" je, pak, odustao od tvrdnje da je laganje nužno grijeh. Izloživši vlastiti nauk o laži Marulić se u jednom od pitanjā koja pripadaju filozofskoj etici iskazao kao izvorni mislilac. Kada je u "Parabolama" razlikovao one koji svijet ljube od onih koji ga preziru, Marulić je iznio nauk o tjelesnim i duhovnim dobrima. U svojoj zbirci vrlina i porokā zaključio je da će blaženstvo ostvariti samo oni koji nastoje steći duhovna dobra. Svoja promišljanja o mudrosti, mudracu i blaženstvu Marulić je najopširnije izložio u poglavljima treće knjige "Evanđelistara". Ponudio je vlastitu odredbu mudrosti, odredio je izvor mudrosti, istaknuo je uvjete koje čovjek mora ispuniti da bi bio mudar, ali i razotkrio mudrost koje se trebamo kloniti te nas izvijestio o dužnostima mudracā. Marulićeva etička misao bila je usmjerena na poučavanje o blaženstvu. U nauku o blaženstvu redovito je isticao da ostvarenje blaženstva omogućava samo kršćanski nauk i vjera u Boga. Marulićeva etička misao počivala je i na spisima te nauku filozofā: Platona, Seneke, Diogena iz Laerte, Cicerona, Aleksandra iz Afrodizijade. Stajališta o nauku filozofā izložio je u "Instituciji". U poglavlju »De fide Christi contra philosophos« filozofima je poručio: blaženstvo mogu ostvariti samo kršćani ; nauk filozofā nije siguran ni istinit ; mudrost filozofā nije dorasla pobožnosti kršćana ; istinu mogu spoznati samo kršćani.

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski

Znanstvena područja
Filozofija

Napomena
Ethical thought of a Renaissance philosopher from Split, Marko Marulić (1450-1524), has been explored in this work in the way that four of his main works in Latin were dealt with: "Repertorium", "De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum", "Quinquaginta parabolae", and "Evangelistarium". In those works Marulić’s ethics is shown in two ways. "Repertorium" sheds light on writings by Marulić that were accompanied with an ethical key word, while the other three works give us an insight into Marulić’s ethical teachings. Of 388 key words, Marulić included into "Repertorium" even 170 of those belonging to philosophical ethics. Apart from 27 ethical key words, the biggest amount of his writings was based on writings by philosophical writers. "Repertorium" is therefore a compendium that serves as the earliest testimony to Marulić’s inclination to ethical subjects. His teachings of truth Marulić explored to a great extent in chapter »De veritate colenda mendacioque fugiendo« of his work "De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum". In it he pointed out ten examples through which he wanted to teach us that we must never give up telling the truth. His teachings of truth he concluded with the claim that truth is Christ. His thoughts on Christ as truth Marulić also mentioned in his works "Quinquaginta parabolae" and "Evangelistarium". In his work "De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum", and in the same chapter in which he taught about truth, Marulić expounded his views on lies. From these teachings a claim is to be singled out saying that sometimes it is justified and necessary to pretend, to cover up something or lie. By means of 31 example Marulić distinguished 15 ways of telling a lie and 15 reasons that justify lying. Marulić also taught about lie in chapter »De decem praeceptis« of his "Evangelistarium". There he gave up on his claim that lying is necessarily a sin. Having expounded his own teachings of lie, Marulić proved himself to be a genuine philosopher in one of the questions belonging to philosophical ethics. Having distinguished in his work "Quinquaginta parabolae" those who love the world from those who despise it, Marulić provided us with teachings of bodily and spiritual goods. According to him, only those who want to acquire spiritual goods will achieve beatitude. His teachings of bodily and spiritual goods he also expounded in his work "Evangelistarium", but in it he only mentioned his earlier views. His teachings of wisdom and a sage Marulić expounded at length in chapters of his third book "Evangelistarium". He offered his own view of wisdom, defined the source of wisdom, pointed out conditions that are to be met if a person wants to be wise, drew attention to ways of achieving beatitude, but he also disclosed a type of wisdom which is to be shunned and acquainted us with duties of sages. He commented on his view of wisdom that it is equivalent to the following statements of the prophet Isaiah: »Stop the wrongdoing! Learn to do good!«. While discussing the source of wisdom, Marulić concluded the following: wisdom is the gift of God ; wisdom is revealed by God. Marulić’s ethical thought was directed at teaching people about the achievement of beatitude. In his teachings of beatitude he regularly pointed out that beatitude is only ensured by Christian teachings and the faith in God. In his writing "Quinquaginta parabolae" he commented that faith is the origin of virtues, while in "Evangelistarium" he advised us to accept the teachings given by God, because only in that way will we achieve beatitude. Marulić’s ethical teachings were based on few philosophical sources. Having an insight into "Repertorium" we find out that he was well acquainted with the writings and views of Plato, Seneca, Diogenes Laërtius, Cicero, Origen, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Augustine, and Pseudo-Aristotle. Philosophical sources of his other works were Epicureans and Stoics. On teachings of philosophers Marulić wrote at length in his work "De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum". In chapter »De fide Christi contra philosophos« he taught philosophers that: beatitude is only achieved by Christians ; teachings of philosophers are neither certain nor truthful ; wisdom and knowledge of philosophers do not live up to the piety of Christians ; cognition of truth belongs only to Christians.



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
191-1911112-1092 - Boškovićeva Theoria philosophiae naturalis i hrvatske filozofske tradicije (Ivica Martinović, )

Ustanove
Institut za filozofiju, Zagreb

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Davor Balić, (282270)