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Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 499745

Iseljavanje iz Dalmacije i zapadne Hercegovine u Uskoplje tijekom 19. i prvoj polovici 20. st.


Škegro, Ante
Iseljavanje iz Dalmacije i zapadne Hercegovine u Uskoplje tijekom 19. i prvoj polovici 20. st. // Hercegovina: godišnjak za kulturno i povijesno naslijeđe, 24 (2010), 21-36 (podatak o recenziji nije dostupan, članak, znanstveni)


Naslov
Iseljavanje iz Dalmacije i zapadne Hercegovine u Uskoplje tijekom 19. i prvoj polovici 20. st.
(Arriving from Dalmatia and western Hercegowina in Uskoplje (middle Bosnia) over the 19th and early 20th centuries)

Autori
Škegro, Ante

Izvornik
Hercegovina: godišnjak za kulturno i povijesno naslijeđe (0351-4552) 24 (2010); 21-36

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, članak, znanstveni

Ključne riječi
Bosna i Hercegovina; Uskoplje; Hrvati; katolici; migracije
(Bosnia and Hercegowina; Uskoplje; Croats; Catholics; migrations)

Sažetak
Uskopljem se naziva područje uz gornji tok rijeke Vrbasa, u jugozapadnom dijelu središnje Bosne. U povijesnim se vrelima učestalije spominje od 12. st. Kršćanstvo se na tom području, ako je suditi po tragovima sakralnih objekata, toponima i sl., ukorijenilo još u ranokršćansko doba te opstalo do danas. Četiristogodišnje osmanlijsko ropstvo preživjelo je u okviru katoličke župe Skoplje, koja je, osim gotovo čitavog Uskoplja, obuhvaćala i kuprešku visoravan (do 1802. g.) te dijelove travničke vispoljane (Rastovo = Rostovo, do 1862.). Ako se izuzmu pogromi koje je tijekom Domovinskog rata (1992.-1995.) sprovela islamska Armija Bosne i Hercegovine a potom muslimansko-bošnjačke vlasti, najteže doba za uskopaljske katolike bili su Bečki rat (1683.-1699.) i Morejski rat (1684.-1699.) te kuga koja je morila od 1814. do 1817. g. Kao i drugdje po Bosni, i uskopaljski su katolici krvlju plaćali poraze što su ih osmanlijske postrojbe trpjele u vrijeme oslobađanja Ugarske, Erdelja, Banata, Bačke, Srijema, Slavonije, Like, Dalmacije i Crne Gore tijekom spomenutih ratova. Desetkovalo ih je i islamizirano pučanstvo koje se povlačilo pred osloboditeljima te se slijevalo u Bosnu i Hercegovinu. Bujica osmanlijskih feudalaca sručila se i u Uskoplje, gdje su bili najbrojniji u čitavoj Bosni i Hercegovine. Katolički puk počinje se oporavljati od druge polovice 18. st., kada se, kako bilježe matice uskopaljskih katoličkih župa, postupno vraća ka pradjedovskim ognjištima. Uskopaljski begovat u nedostatku radne snage naseljava i katolike sa zapadnohercegovačkih prostora, koji gdjekad sa sobom donose i imena naselja iz kojih su potekli. Prispjeće katolika u Uskoplje do uspostave austro-ugarske uprave uglavnom se odvijalo u kmetovskim okolnostima. Ništa bolje nije bilo ni tijekom prvih godina austro-ugarske uprave zbog protežiranja begovata. Od kraja 19. st. hercegovački katolički puk u Uskoplju kupuje planinske i brdske posjede od olinjalog osmanlijskog plemstva, koje u novim okolnostima siromaši te se okreće trgovini odnosno politici. Nove vlasti iz njegovih redova uvelike regrutiraju činovnički aparat po Bosni i Hercegovini.

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski

Znanstvena područja
Povijest

Napomena
Uskoplje is the region along the Vrbas headwaters in central Bosnia, from Makljen pass on the southeast to the mountain Komar on the nortwest. Its backbone is the valley, measuring about 30 km in length and as wide as some 10 km. It was named after the Vrbas valley, which, except the Vrbas river, irigated also by a number of broks and streams. It is devided on the upper (its center is Skoplje Gornje = Gornji Vakuf) and lower (historical centers were Biograd = Akhisar = Prusac and Donji Vakuf) (Fig. 1). Bugojno became its administrative and economic center at the end of 19 century. In the historical sources this region was often referred since the 12th century. In the reports to the Roman Congregatio de propaganda fide made by the catholic bishops - apostolic administrators of Bosnian Apostolic Vicariate (Vicariatus apostolicus in Bosna Othomana) and the Bosnian Franciscan chronicles, was refered as Scopiae, Scopia, Skopje, Schoppie, Scopje, etc.). Until to the Fatherland War (1992-1995) in Uskoplje region lived 33 368 Croats organized in six catholic parishes. After the conquest of the largest part of Uskoplje by the Bosnian Islamic Army and the islamic authority, catholic population was reduced to a negligible number with a tendency to rapidly disappear. Judging by the traces of sacred objects, toponyms, etc., it could be said that christianity was rooted in Uskoplje still in the late Roman period existing until today. Organised in the catholic parish of Skopje it survived four hundred years of Ottoman occupation. This parish encompassed most part of Uskoplje, Kupres plateau (to 1802) and a part of Travnik plateau (Rastovo = Rostovo, to 1862). The most difficult period ever for the Uskoplje catholics, excluding the pogroms during the Fatherland War conducted by the Bosnian Islamic Army and after the war islamic government, were Viennese War (1683-1699), Morean War (1684-1699) and the 1814-1817 plague. After the burning of the Franciscan Monastery in the adjacent region of Rama and Franciscans fleeding in 1687 to the Sinj border, catholics of Uskoplje have lost their spiritual and all kinds of welfare. Like other Bosnian catholics, they also are paying in blood defeats, which the Ottoman forces suffered during these wars. Few survived by fleeding across the Sava and Una rivers under the Austrian rule or in Dalmatian areas under Venetian rule. Decimated also by the Islamic population withdrawing to Bosnia from Hungary, Slavonia, Srem, Backa, Banat, Dalmatia and Montenegro. Ottoman feudal possessors refugees unleashed on Uskoplje too like the torrent from the same area, became and remained the most numerous in the whole Bosnia and Herzegowina (Fig. 2). And because of their vengeance and rage catholics of Uskoplje continously decreased, so that in 1737 there were only 370! The gradual recovery of Croatian catholics in Uskoplje began during the second half of the 18th century, when the refugees gradually petreated to their fathers' homes - mostly in the form of slaves. In the absence of labor Otthoman possessors in Uskoplje on their estates inhabited by impoverished catholics also from the western Hercegowina. Sometimes catholics also transferred the names of their Dalmatian and Herzegowinian settlements they originated from to the new environment. The arrival of the Croatian catholic population in the area of Herzegovina to Uskoplje to the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian government was mostly in difficult conditions. Nothing changed in the first years of the Austro-Hungarian rule. Since the late 19th century catholic people arrived to Uskoplje in different circumstances, mainly by buying in the mountains and hilly lands impoverish Ottoman possessioners that under the new circumstances turning to the trade (mostly grain) and politics, but the Croatian catholics to livestock and farming.



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
019-0190610-0591 - Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje: plemstvo i pučanstvo, vlasti i institucije (Ante Škegro, )

Ustanove
Hrvatski institut za povijest, Zagreb

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Ante Škegro, (206940)