Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 492641
Suhopolje-Kliškovac. Od mjestopisa do arheološke spoznaje.
Suhopolje-Kliškovac. Od mjestopisa do arheološke spoznaje., Zagreb: Institut za arheologiju, 2011 (monografija)
Suhopolje-Kliškovac. Od mjestopisa do arheološke spoznaje.
(Suhopolje-Kliškovac. From the Toponym to the Archaeological Cognition.)
Tomičić, Željko ; Jelinčić, Kristina
Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija knjige
Autorske knjige, monografija, znanstvena
Institut za arheologiju
Suhopolje; Kliškovac; groblje; crkva; srednji vijek; Podravina; Bijelo brdo
(Suhopolje; Kliškovac; cemetery; church; Middle Ages; Podravina; Bijelo brdo)
Rezultati petogodišnjih arheoloških istraživanja objavljeni su u ovoj monografiji u kojoj se istraživani lokalitet Suhopolje-Kliškovac prikazuje s više različitih stajališta. Riječ je o lokalitetu na kojemu je pronađeno groblje gdje se pokopavanje vršilo od 11. pa do kraja 15. st., te crkva iz 15. st. U monografiji se donosi zemljopisni i povijesni prikaz šireg područja, detaljno opisuje toponimija i problemi koji se javljaju uz nju. Predstavljena je stratigrafska slika lokaliteta i daje se tumačenje arheološke slojevitosti lokaliteta Suhopolje-Kliškovac. Iz opširne dokumentacije koja je pratila istraživanja izdvojen je sadržajan katalog grobova s pratećim ilustracijama grobova i predmeta koji su u njima pronađeni. Novac, metalni nalazi i srednjovjekovna keramika znanstveno su obrađeni u zasebnim poglavljima, kao i antropološki ostaci iz grobova. Arheološko iskopavanja pratila su i geofizikalna ispitivanja lokaliteta, a njihovi rezultati su u ovdje objavljeni. Monografija je plod uspješnog zajedničkog rada ekipe stručnjaka i znanstvenika različitih područja tijekom istraživanja i znanstvene obrade podataka.
Teologija, Arheologija, Etnologija i antropologija
Toponyms are significant because they give important information about the site they denote. This was also the case with the toponym Kliškovac, which suggested the existence of a church and settlement. A stray find from the beginning of the 20th century: a bronze ring with an S loop, found in the railway cutting at the Suhopolje-Kliškovac site, suggested the existence of a mediaeval site with the characteristics of the Bijelo Brdo culture. This find, along with the fact that it was found at a site with an interesting toponym, raised many questions, and as a result excavations were conducted. An insight into historical events and sources gives us a large number of various and interesting data on the broader area of Suhopolje and Virovitica, but none of them can be undoubtedly associated with the Suhopolje-Kliškovac site. Given that archaeological excavations revealed a cemetery dating from the 11th to the end of the 15th century and also a church from the 15th century, the question is raised as to which settlement the cemetery belonged, what its name was and to whom the church found in the course of the excavations was dedicated. Near Suhopolje, there was a church of St. Andrew’s that was mentioned in 1257. However, the church from the Suhopolje-Kliškovac site was built in the 15th century. This does not exclude the possibility that there was an older church on this site or in its immediate vicinity that could be identified as the St. Andrew’s church mentioned by the source. A precise answer to this question will have to be given following new historical and archaeological research. It is enough to take a look at the topographical map and location of Kliškovac to see how favourable the location chosen in the Middle Ages was for living. There are two hills: on the southern one, the excavations unearthed the church and cemetery, and on the northern one, surface finds suggested the existence of settlements. Geophysical research was conducted over an area of about 1 hectare. This yielded a large number of archeologically prospective spots. The results of geophysical research conducted south of the railway suggest that structures can be found on this spot. These resemble those found north of the railway, where the church stands. The distribution of possible walls unearthed in the geophysical research and their relationship to the church and cemetery raise the question whether the structures were directly linked with the church, in other words if there might have been a monastery. This is also one of the questions that appeared in the course of five years of multidisciplinary research and one that needs to be answered in future excavations. Before the excavations in 2005 had begun, field walks were conducted and it was established that the archaeological site stretched over a surface of approximately 3 hectares. Surface finds, as well as finds unearthed in the excavations, cover the period from the 11th until the 18th century. In systematic excavations, a cemetery was discovered in which burials had taken place from the 11th until the end of the 15th century, as well as a church with Gothic characteristics dating from the 15th century, and also layers and structures from the 16th and 17th centuries. Surface finds of pottery on the northern hill, where the existence of settlements is assumed, were dated from the 13th to the 14th and from the 17th to the 18th centuries. Under the humus, layers from the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as a semi-sunken residential structure with a fireplace from the 16th century, were found. Beneath them, 145 graves were defined that were classified in three horizons. The oldest, horizon I, was dated from the beginning of the 11th century until the year 1250. Graves with jewellery with characteristics of the Bijelo Brdo culture were found in this horizon. In the central horizon, horizon II, dated from 1250 to 1400, there is no such jewellery. Horizons I and II are older than the church, i.e. the church cut most of the graves of these horizons. The youngest horizon, horizon III, belongs to the 15th century and is contemporaneous with the church that was erected at the beginning of the 15th century. On the basis of stratigraphic relations and several radiocarbon analyses, it was established that burials at the cemetery ceased at the end of the 15th century, at least in the part of the cemetery that was excavated in the period from 2005 until 2009. Although the toponym Kliškovac made clear that there had been a church on this site, nevertheless the excavation team was pleasantly surprised to find a church whose memory was preserved in the toponym. The excavated area could not have been larger due to the extremely complex stratigraphic picture and complex superimposed strata of graves. Because of this, it was necessary to dig slowly and patiently over a small area. It is precisely due to the relatively small size of the excavated area (122 m²) compared to the size of the entire site (3 hectares) that it was hard to expect that we would discover the church precisely in our trial trench. On the other hand, the wisely selected excavation site on the highest elevation of the southern and more conus-shaped hill proved to be an excellent choice, because the church was erected precisely on that spot. Unfortunately, the church, just like part of the cemetery, had been cut by the railway and its layout forever erased. What the excavations did manage to save from oblivion is the fact that the church was built at the beginning of the 15th century and was in use throughout the entire century, that it had Gothic characteristics, as can be seen from the stone decoration, and that at least in part it had white plaster with red painting. We also found out that it was destroyed by fire and after that partly knocked down. Its destruction probably took place after the middle of the 16th century. An anthropological analysis of bone material from this site showed that the life of the people buried here was rather hard. Phenomena identified on bone remains suggest low levels of hygienic conditions, oral hygiene and nutrition, and the presence of anaemia, contagious diseases, and violence. Still, part of the population was in possession of jewellery and was buried with coins, which implies that elements of the population enjoyed a higher social and proprietary status. That we are not dealing with an insignificant small village with a poor church is also suggested by the rather uncommon find of a bronze book-fitting displaying superb workmanship from the 15th century. Initial thoughts about the site after the first find of a bronze ring with an S loop at the beginning of the 20th century might have been that Suhopolje-Kliškovac is a simple mediaeval site with a Bijelo Brdo cemetery, but after excavations had been conducted, it became clear that we are dealing with a significantly richer and more complex site, with a church, a cemetery that functioned continuously from the 11th until the end of the 15th century, and a settlement. The series of questions that were previously raised have been answered in this book, and we have also discovered numerous facts which we could not have even imagined before the beginning of excavations in 2005. However, as always, numerous new questions have been raised that will remain unanswered until new excavations are carried out.