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Predmeti od kosti i roga


Vujević, Dario
Predmeti od kosti i roga // Crno vrilo 2 / Marijanović, Brunislav (ur.).
Zadar: Sveučilište u Zadru, 2009. str. 89-123


Naslov
Predmeti od kosti i roga
(Bone and antler artifacts)

Autori
Vujević, Dario

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Poglavlja u knjigama, znanstveni

Knjiga
Crno vrilo 2

Urednik/ci
Marijanović, Brunislav

Izdavač
Sveučilište u Zadru

Grad
Zadar

Godina
2009

Raspon stranica
89-123

ISBN
978-953-7237-60-8

Ključne riječi
koštano oruđe, neolitik, Crno vrilo
(bone tools, Neolithic, Crno vrilo)

Sažetak
Total number of 402 bone and antler artifacts were found on the Neolithic site of Crno vrilo. It is obvious that the bones for tools were not selected randomly, but similar bones were regularly used for the production of a certain group of artifacts. Long tubular bones (primarily tibia and radius) were suitable for manufacturing massive objects, whereas smaller bones (such as ulna, metacarpus, metatarsus) were used for producing smaller objects, mostly for different kinds of points. These facts show that inhabitants of Crno vrilo were familiar with the characteristics of the bone material and that they purposefully chose bones whose characteristics suited the function of a certain tool group. Bones of smaller domesticated animals were mostly used for manufacturing tools, primarily of ovicaprids, whereas bones of a deer, rabbit, some larger animals, and other wild animals were used rarely, which corresponds to the general picture of faunal remains on the site. Techniques of bone modification are not different from those used on other Neolithic sites, and they comprise breaking, which is the simplest way of producing a certain type of tool, cutting and grooving, which were used primarily for the production of points. Working edge can be modified with different techniques, depending on its purpose. Two-sided, oblique cutting was used for pointed tools, whereas one-sided oblique cutting was applied for objects with a flat working edge. Tips of the punches, awl edges, and sometimes even entire surfaces of certain artifacts were modified by scraping. Different kinds of sandstone were used for final polishing because of its suitable structure. Bone artifacts from Crno vrilo can be divided into several categories: points, polishers, spatulae, handles, fishhooks and chisels/scrapers. Besides tools there are also other categories of bone finds such as flutes and decorative objects. Points are the most numerous category of bone tools. Points refer to objects whose working surface is limited to a sharply pointed tip. There are some differences within this category which implied subdivision to: punches, awls and unperforated needles. Punches were primarily used on hard, raw hide, that served for making clothes, and especially for shoes. They are usually made of parts of broken tubular bone or obliquely cut bone, but there are also examples of massive, finely treated punches. The size and shape of this subgroup of punches show that they could be used, except for perforating hides, also for some other purposes – maybe even as weapons. Awls make one of the most numerous categories of bone tools (107 pieces). Just like punches, they are usually made of diaphysis of tubular bones (usually metacarpus and metatarsus), that were obliquely cut into two or into smaller parts and then sharpened. Third type of tool used for piercing and perforating were unperforated needles. Their use was probably in connection with production of clothes of lighter fabric (probably wool). Although most needles are broken, their length implies that diaphyses of metacarpal and metatarsal bones were used for their production. Longitudinal grooving and cutting were used to achieve thin, trapezoid basis and afterwards the tip was additionaly modified into a polygonal form and polished. Modification of the proximal end of the tool comprised removing the excess bone material by cutting. Polishers are represented with 33 pieces. They were probably used for pottery polishing. They were manufactured from a bone that was broken in two or a bone that was obliquely cut in its upper part, usually bones of a sheep or goat (tibia, radius, metapodial bones). Distal end is rounded. One fragmented spatula was also found on this site. Concave modification of the edges shows that the tool was getting narrower towards the basis. 7 handles were also found, 6 of which were made of antler. Two of these handles were made very meticulously, both consisting of the tip of an antler which was additionally sharpened. It is reasonable to suppose that these handles also served as punches or a tool used for widening holes. The shaft-holes of these handles are widened, and one of them is decorated by incision. There is only one example of a fishing tool – it is a fishhook made by breaking diaphysis of a sheep or goat’s tibia or radius. The hook’s head is rectangularly formed and it has a notch for easier attachment of the thread. The tip of the hook is broken so it is impossible to determine whether it was barbed. Chisels/scrapers were used for splintering and working on softer materials, for scraping wood and bone or for scraping animal hides. 5 tools of this kind were found on Crno vrilo and they were all made of deer’s antlers with sharpened tips on one or two sides. As far as decorative objects are concerned, there are four such objects made of bone. One of these objects is a wolf/dog’s (Canis sp.) fang with a perforation on the root, for pulling the thread. Another decorative object made of bone is a bead made of rabbit’s bone and a round perforated plate. There is also an interesting fragment of a bone plate, with rounded edges, polished surface, and a perforation on one end. Although it was only partially preserved, it is probable that this was also a decorative object, but there is also a possibility that it served as a polisher. It is worth mentioning that among bone artifacts from Crno vrilo there are some objects that cannot be classified into existing categories, because their purpose is difficult to determine, and they might be tool parts (e.g. artifact number 114). Distal, working edge of the tool is broken, and there is a perforation on its proximal part. This artifact resembles some kinds of punches and massive awls, but there is a possibility that this could be a weaving needle.

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski

Znanstvena područja
Arheologija



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
269-2690680-0678 - Rani prapovijesni periodi na području istočnog Jadrana (Brunislav Marijanović, )

Ustanove
Sveučilište u Zadru

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Vujević, Dario
Predmeti od kosti i roga // Crno vrilo 2 / Marijanović, Brunislav (ur.).
Zadar: Sveučilište u Zadru, 2009. str. 89-123
Vujević, D. (2009) Predmeti od kosti i roga. U: Marijanović, B. (ur.) Crno vrilo 2. Zadar, Sveučilište u Zadru, str. 89-123.
@inbook{inbook, author = {Vujevi\'{c}, D.}, editor = {Marijanovi\'{c}, B.}, year = {2009}, pages = {89-123}, keywords = {bone tools, Neolithic, Crno vrilo}, isbn = {978-953-7237-60-8}, title = {Bone and antler artifacts}, keyword = {bone tools, Neolithic, Crno vrilo}, publisher = {Sveu\v{c}ili\v{s}te u Zadru}, publisherplace = {Zadar} }