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Positionally Isomeric Organic Gelators: Structure-Gelation Study, Racemic versus Enantiomeric Gelators, and Solvation Effects


Čaplar, Vesna; Frkanec, Leo; Šijaković Vujičić, Nataša; Žinić, Mladen
Positionally Isomeric Organic Gelators: Structure-Gelation Study, Racemic versus Enantiomeric Gelators, and Solvation Effects // Chemistry : a European journal, 16 (2010), 10; 3066-3082 doi:10.1002/chem.200902342 (međunarodna recenzija, članak, znanstveni)


Naslov
Positionally Isomeric Organic Gelators: Structure-Gelation Study, Racemic versus Enantiomeric Gelators, and Solvation Effects

Autori
Čaplar, Vesna ; Frkanec, Leo ; Šijaković Vujičić, Nataša ; Žinić, Mladen

Izvornik
Chemistry : a European journal (0947-6539) 16 (2010), 10; 3066-3082

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, članak, znanstveni

Ključne riječi
Enantiomers ; fatty acids ; gelation ; racemates ; self-assembly

Sažetak
Low molecular weight gelator molecules consisting of aliphatic acid, amino acid (phenylglycine), and -aminoaliphatic acid units have been designed. By varying the number of methylene units in the aliphatic and -aminoaliphatic acid chains, as defined by descriptors m and n, respectively, a series of positionally isomeric gelators having different positions of the peptidic hydrogen-bonding unit within the gelator molecule has been obtained. The gelation properties of the positional isomers have been determined in relation to a defined set of twenty solvents of different structure and polarity and analyzed in terms of gelator versatility (Gver) and effectiveness (Geff). The results of gelation tests have shown that simple synthetic optimizations of a lead gelator molecule by variation of m and n, end-group polarity (carboxylic acid versus sodium carboxylate), and stereochemistry (racemate versus optically pure form) allowed the identification of gelators with tremendously improved versatility (Gver) and effectiveness (Geff). Dramatic differences in Geff values of up to 70 times could be observed between pure racemate/enantiomer pairs of some gelators, which were manifested even in the gelation of very similar solvents such as isomeric xylenes. The combined results of spectroscopic (1H NMR, FTIR), electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction studies suggest similar organization of the positionally isomeric gelators at the molecular level, comprising parallel -sheet hydrogen-bonded primary assemblies that form inversed bilayers at a higher organizational level. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of selected enantiomer/racemate gelator pairs and their o- and p-xylene gels revealed the simultaneous presence of different polymorphs in the racemate gels. The increased gelation effectiveness of the racemate compared to that of the single enantiomer is most likely a consequence of its spontaneous resolution into enantiomeric bilayers and their subsequent organization into polymorphic aggregates of different energy. The latter determine the gel fiber thickness and solvent immobilization capacity of the formed gel network.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Kemija



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
098-0982904-2912 - Samo-udruživanje u gelovima i sinteza funkcionalnih hibridnih materijala (Leo Frkanec, )

Ustanove
Institut "Ruđer Bošković", Zagreb

Časopis indeksira:


  • Current Contents Connect (CCC)
  • Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC)
    • Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXP)
    • SCI-EXP, SSCI i/ili A&HCI
  • Scopus
  • MEDLINE


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