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Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 434648

Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia


Šimunić Buršić, Marina
Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia // 3rd International Meeting on Architectural Heritage of the Mediterranean - Abstracts / Ferrao de Oliveira Braizinha, J.J. (ur.).
Lisabon, Portugal: Universidade Lusiada de Lisboa, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Artes, 2009. str. 41-43 (predavanje, međunarodna recenzija, sažetak, znanstveni)


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Naslov
Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia

Autori
Šimunić Buršić, Marina

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Sažeci sa skupova, sažetak, znanstveni

Izvornik
3rd International Meeting on Architectural Heritage of the Mediterranean - Abstracts / Ferrao de Oliveira Braizinha, J.J. - Lisabon, Portugal : Universidade Lusiada de Lisboa, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Artes, 2009, 41-43

Skup
3rd International Meeting on Architectural Heritage of the Mediterranean

Mjesto i datum
Lisabon, Portugal, 15-17.10.2009

Vrsta sudjelovanja
Predavanje

Vrsta recenzije
Međunarodna recenzija

Ključne riječi
Romanesque; vault; diagonal arches; Dalmatia; Zadar; bell-tower

Sažetak
Abstract Purpose of the paper Although the Mediterranean culture is considered a cradle of European and Islamic cultures, the architectural heritage of certain Mediterranean regions is less known to the international scientific community. The old proverb says: «What is not written (i.e. published), does not exist» - and this is true especially in the history of art and construction. Therefore, the vault in the bell-tower of the Benedictine church St Mary in Zadar - an important Croatian example of a very early cross vault with diagonal arches - is analyzed and compared with some well-known European examples. The aim is to give impetus to similar research in other Mediterranean regions, which might lead to reexamination of accepted theories (or doctrines) on the development of mediaeval vault systems. The method of approach To understand the architectural heritage, an interdisciplinary approach is required: not only should the aesthetic qualities of buildings be examined, but also their constructive and structural characteristics. In this research both formal elements (such as capitals, columns, windows etc), and structural elements (vault, its arches and its substructure) are analyzed, by using methods of history, history of art and structural engineering. A research of the building – a bell-tower and the adjoining chapter house of a Benedictine monastery in Zadar - is carried on, in order to understand its inherent structural and constructional logic, including historical circumstances in which it was constructed. A comparative analysis of the vault above the first floor of the bell-tower is done, being this vault one of the very first cross vaults with massive diagonal arches in Europe. Its characteristics, in particular the structural ones, are compared with the contemporary vaults in Italy and France – the most progressive regions in the art of building (ars aedificatoria), in order to discover possible influences. The vault in the bell-tower of the Benedictine church of St Mary in Zadar The Romanesque bell-tower of the Benedictine church of St Mary in Zadar, is constructed in fine ashlar, with white limestone, typical for Mediterranean Croatia. On the first floor of the bell-tower there is a small, but richly decorated room, with a balcony overlooking the chapter room of the monastery. This room is square in plan, approx 3.7 m* 3.7 m, vaulted with a cross vault, with mighty diagonal arches. The arches, made of fine ashlar, have simple rectangle cross section, like transverse arches of the barrel vault of the chapter room, which was constructed contemporarily with the bell-tower. Massive diagonal arches rest visually on slender columns in the corners, but actually they are supported on the heavy masonry of the bell-tower walls. Their capitals, which connect the columns to the walls, have elaborate sculptural decoration and engraved letters which form together the name of king Collomannus (R.co-llo-man-nus). The Romanesque bell-tower of the Benedictine church of St Mary in Zadar, on the Croatian Mediterranean coast, is erected in the period of king Collomannus of the Arpad dynasty - the first Hungarian king on the Croatian throne. The bell-tower was built with the king's financial support, as is proved by the inscription on the walls of the bell-tower, mentioning king Collomannus’s victory in 1105, when he ordered to erect the tower. Although the upper parts of the bell-tower were reconstructed in the 15th century, lower floors are still authentic from the beginning of the 12th century - which is proved by the decorative elements, and also by the structure of the walls. Croatian art-historians dating of the lower parts of the bell-tower in the period 1105-1111 is based on historic sources: the original inscription of the king Collomannus (1105) on the outer side of the walls of the bell-tower, and the epitaph of the abbess Vekenega, engraved in the chapter room (1111). Historic methods (documents, inscription), approach of architectural history, and also in situ research (observation of the structure of masonry), as well as the logic of construction and structure – all these ascertain this conclusion of Croatian art-historians. Significant results Considering that the constructional and structural solution of the vault is very progressive for the time of completion, the comparative studies of the relevant examples from the Mediterranean architectural heritage is carried on, to research possible links and influences. The comparative research, including investigation of the most relevant studies of the history of mediaeval architecture and vault systems, has proved that the vault in the bell-tower of the Zadar Benedictine church is in fact very early example of this innovative type. In Croatian history of art it is accepted that the vault of the Benedictine church in Zadar is the first cross vault with diagonal arches in Europe which is dated precisely, with certainty, based on historic sources. In the study to be presented, the effort was made to research similar contemporary vaults in Europe (published in relevant literature), and by now no older certainly dated example has been found. The vault in Zadar is not only very early, but it also has some very progressive features, compared with contemporary examples The presentation of this vault to the international scientific community would be one step further, because experts from many countries could perhaps easily name other, more ancient vaults of this type, and thus the scientific progress would be made. Conclusions The importance of comparative studies of architectural heritage in the Mediterranean circle should be stressed. Great nations, with their important contribution to culture and civilization, have written their own history of architecture, where architectural heritage of “small” nations is marginalized. Because of linguistic barriers, their architectural heritage is often not enough known to the broader scientific community. In the age of global communications, it is our duty to break such linguistic barriers and to share our knowledge. This will contribute to better understanding of cultural links between artists, builders and contractors in our common past in our Mediterranean civilization, and probably it will lead to the discovery of new facts and relations.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Arhitektura i urbanizam



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekti:
054-0000000-3262 - Atlas hrvatske arhitekture XX. stoljeća

Ustanove:
Arhitektonski fakultet, Zagreb


Citiraj ovu publikaciju:

Šimunić Buršić, Marina
Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia // 3rd International Meeting on Architectural Heritage of the Mediterranean - Abstracts / Ferrao de Oliveira Braizinha, J.J. (ur.).
Lisabon, Portugal: Universidade Lusiada de Lisboa, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Artes, 2009. str. 41-43 (predavanje, međunarodna recenzija, sažetak, znanstveni)
Šimunić Buršić, M. (2009) Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia. U: Ferrao de Oliveira Braizinha, J. (ur.)3rd International Meeting on Architectural Heritage of the Mediterranean - Abstracts.
@article{article, author = {\v{S}imuni\'{c} Bur\v{s}i\'{c}, M.}, editor = {Ferrao de Oliveira Braizinha, J.}, year = {2009}, pages = {41-43}, keywords = {Romanesque, vault, diagonal arches, Dalmatia, Zadar, bell-tower}, title = {Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia}, keyword = {Romanesque, vault, diagonal arches, Dalmatia, Zadar, bell-tower}, publisher = {Universidade Lusiada de Lisboa, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Artes}, publisherplace = {Lisabon, Portugal} }
@article{article, author = {\v{S}imuni\'{c} Bur\v{s}i\'{c}, M.}, editor = {Ferrao de Oliveira Braizinha, J.}, year = {2009}, pages = {41-43}, keywords = {Romanesque, vault, diagonal arches, Dalmatia, Zadar, bell-tower}, title = {Romanesque cross vault with diagonal arches in Dalmatia}, keyword = {Romanesque, vault, diagonal arches, Dalmatia, Zadar, bell-tower}, publisher = {Universidade Lusiada de Lisboa, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Artes}, publisherplace = {Lisabon, Portugal} }




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