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Occurrence of antimicrobials in the Sava River

Senta, Ivan; Terzić, Senka; Ahel, Marijan
Occurrence of antimicrobials in the Sava River // 12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment
Stockholm, 2009. str. 302-302 (poster, međunarodna recenzija, sažetak, znanstveni)

Occurrence of antimicrobials in the Sava River

Senta, Ivan ; Terzić, Senka ; Ahel, Marijan

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Sažeci sa skupova, sažetak, znanstveni

12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment / - Stockholm, 2009, 302-302

12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment

Mjesto i datum
Stockholm, Švedska, 14-17.07.2009

Vrsta sudjelovanja

Vrsta recenzije
Međunarodna recenzija

Ključne riječi
Antimicrobials; The Sava River; Liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); River water

A comprehensive study on the occurrence of antimicrobials in the Sava River was performed. Three different groups of antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones and macrolides, as well as trimethoprim, were monitored in our survey, which lasted from February 2007 till May 2008. In that period, water samples were regularly collected with a monthly frequency at 11 locations along the Sava River. Samples were enriched using solid phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges and analyzed by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS) [1]. The most prominent analytes were human-use antimicrobials, especially those with extensive use in Croatia, while veterinary antimicrobials were rarely detected. Concentration of individual antimicrobials in the river was typically below 100 ng/L, which is comparable to the concentrations, reported for some other European rivers [2-5] and can be associated with the consumption of antimicrobials in human medicine. However, in some sampling periods, large increase in concentration was noticed for several antimicrobials. It was especially pronounced for sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin and the main metabolite of erythromycin - dehydroerythromycin. Their concentrations during spring 2008 were almost an order of magnitude higher than in most common situations. Our study indicated that this observation cannot be explained only by the variable hydrological conditions and seasonal consumption patterns. We hypothesized that these antimicrobials had an additional source of input into the Sava River, most probably the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, facilities of the local pharmaceutical industry, including a significant production of macrolide antibiotic azithromycin, are located only few kilometers upstream of the city of Zagreb. Elevated concentrations of macrolide antimicrobials were determined at all stations, except for the location at Jesenice, situated upstream from the discharge point of wastewaters from pharmaceutical facilities. The hypothesis was additionally supported by the detection of azahomoerythromycin, an intermediate from azithromycin synthesis, which does not have any therapeutic application, in highly contaminated samples. Our results indicated wastewaters from the pharmaceutical industry as an important input of antimicrobials into the natural waters.

Izvorni jezik

Znanstvena područja


Projekt / tema
098-0982934-2712 - Organski spojevi kao molekulski obilježivači antropogenog utjecaja na okoliš (Marijan Ahel, )

Institut "Ruđer Bošković", Zagreb