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Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 384900

Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme : Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project LIFE05 TCY/CRO/000105


Mesić, Hana; Bakšić, Darko; Bašić, Ferdo; Čidić, Andreja; Durn, Goran; Husnjak, Stjepan; Kisić, Ivica; Klaić, Domagoj; Komesarović, Branka; Mesić, Milan et al.
Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme : Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project LIFE05 TCY/CRO/000105, Zagreb: Croatian Environment Agency, 2008 (prirucnik)


CROSBI ID: 384900 Za ispravke kontaktirajte CROSBI podršku putem web obrasca

Naslov
Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme : Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project LIFE05 TCY/CRO/000105

Autori
Mesić, Hana ; Bakšić, Darko ; Bašić, Ferdo ; Čidić, Andreja ; Durn, Goran ; Husnjak, Stjepan ; Kisić, Ivica ; Klaić, Domagoj ; Komesarović, Branka ; Mesić, Milan ; Miko, Slobodan ; Mileusnić, Marta ; Nakić, Zoran ; Pernar, Nikola ; Pilaš, Ivan ; Romić, Davor ; Vrbek, Boris ; Zgorelec, Željka

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija knjige
Autorske knjige, prirucnik, strucna

Izdavač
Croatian Environment Agency

Grad
Zagreb

Godina
2008

Stranica
136

ISBN
978-953-7582-03-6

Ključne riječi
agricultural; forest and polluted soil; soil monitoring; soil sampling

Sažetak
The soil is generally defined as a surface layer of the earth’ s crust made of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms. Soil connects the earth, air and water and hosts a larger part of biosphere. Due to extremely slow process of creation, it is considered as non-renewable, or in the best case, conditionally renewable resource. Soil has numerous functions indispensable for life on Earth ; it provides nourishment, biomass, raw material, habitats and gene reserves ; it storages, filtrates and exchanges nutrients, water and carbon. It is a very complex medium, subject to degradation processes and threats which, in a very short period of time may seriously jeopardise and disable its functions. The consequences may manifest through the loss of soil fertility, biological diversity, air and water quality, and climate changes. The Environment Protection Act (OG 110/07) states: • Article 10: „ Soil is non-renewable … and must be used in a sustainable way with protection of its functions. Unfavourable effects to soil must be avoided in the largest possible extent. • Article 20: (1) Soil protection includes preservation of health and functions of soil, prevention of damage of soil, monitoring of the condition and changes of the soil quality and recovery and renovation of damaged soils and sites. (2) Pollution or soil damage is considered as a harmful impact on the environment, and the establishment of acceptable limiting values of soil quality is based on special regulations. Threats to soil are complex and although unevenly distributed, they are present in the wider area of the European continent. Because of simplicity, they are presented separately, but in reality, they are mutually connected. When several threats act at the same time, their effect increases. If not prevented, they finally may lead to soil degradation. Certain processes of soil degradation have natural causes, but their progress is accelerated by human activities. Data on the properties of soil, measured and observed in mutual interaction in space and time quantify certain threats to the soil and its functions ; • Decline of organic matter and biological diversity - is evaluated by the content of total carbon, the ratio of carbon and nitrogen, and the bulk density of soil. • Soil erosion - depends on the bulk density of soil, density of hard phase, total porosity, soil porosity for water and the content of total carbon. • Contamination of soil - observes the total and accessible content of heavy metals and potentially toxic elements, as well as persistent organic polluters (PAH, PCB, triazine herbicides, organochlorinated pesticides). • Soil compaction - is defined by bulk density of soil, particle size distribution, capacity of soil for air, capacity of soil for water, structure, soil porosity for water and the content of total carbon. • Salinisation - depends on the soil acidity, electrical conductivity, salt content, capacity of cation exchange, soil porosity for water, capacity of soil for water, chemical composition of drainage water and the content of total carbon. • Landslides - depends on particle size distribution, structure and soil porosity for water. The first step in the soil protection, the preservation of natural functions of soil and the prevention of degradation processes is monitoring of the condition and changes of soil properties. Therefore, soil monitoring implies continual monitoring of certain parameters of soil with purpose of gathering information on changes of the condition and characteristics of soil, and identifying the form and intensity of soil degradation. Without the development of the system by which information on negative changes in the sol would be gathered periodically, there can be no timely response to prevent or alleviate such changes. The fundamental international agreement on soil protection in the Republic of Croatia is the Act on Confirmation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa (UNCCD), (OG-IT 11/00). The Convention was adopted in Paris in 1994, and entered into force in 1996. In Republic of Croatia the Convention entered into force on January 4th 2001. The significance of soil monitoring was emphasised by the European Union which, by implementing the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme: “ Environment 2010: Our Future, Our Choice” (Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of July 22nd 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme), raised the significance of soil protection to the level of water and air protection. By Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, Communication COM(2006)231), the European Commission identified eight most important threats to the soil: erosion, organic matter decline, contamination, salinisation, compaction, biological diversity decline, sealing, flooding and landslides. As a result of four years work of five Technical Working Groups and Advisory Forum, on 22 September 2006, the European Commission proposed to the European Parliament and the Council of European Union an Outline Directive for soil protection (Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the protection of soil and amending Directive 2004/35/EC, COM(2006)232) whose goal is to ensure soil protection based on principles of protection of soil functions, prevention of soil degradation, alleviation of effects of degradation and repair of depredated soils. In the period of five years from the day of entry into force of this Directive, all EU Member States have to identify risk areas considering the previously stated threats to the soil. The establishment of the Croatian Soil Monitoring System was recommended as early as in 1993 within the Programme for the Protection of Croatian Soil (Bašiæ ; et al.) which, unfortunately, has never become a part of the Croatian legislation. In 2001, the Croatian Government established the Institute for Soil in Osijek with the primary activity to identify and to monitor the condition of agricultural lands. The Regulation on the Establishment of the Institute for Soil (OG 100/01): Article 3. „ Services of the Institute are the following tasks and activities: 1. determination of the condition of contamination of agricultural land (inventarisation) ; 2. monitoring of the condition of agricultural land by which the condition of all changes in agricultural land is monitored (physical, chemical and biological), and notably the content of pollutants in agricultural land ; 3. establishment of an information system for contaminated agricultural land ; ...” The Agricultural Land ACT (OG 66/01, 87/02, 90/05, draft June 2008) confirms the role of the Institute for Soil as an institution responsible for determining the damage and monitoring of the condition of agricultural land: Article 4. „ In order to protect agricultural land from contamination, testing and monitoring of the condition of damage of agricultural land by pollutants is being conducted and includes: 1. determination of the condition of contamination of agricultural land (inventarisation), 2. monitoring of the condition of agricultural land by which the condition of all changes in agricultural land is monitored (physical, chemical and biological), and notably the content of pollutants in agricultural land, 3. establishment of an information system for contaminated agricultural land. Activities from paragraph 1 of this Article are conducted by the public institution, the Institute for Soil (hereafter: Institute) founded by the Government of the Republic of Croatia.” Monitoring of forestry soil is prescribed by Rulebook on the mode of data collection, network of points, keeping the register, conditions for using data on damage of forest ecosystems (OG 129/06) within the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests), on Level l and Level II Network, pursuant to Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution – CLRTAP (OG-IT 12/93). Forestry Institute in Jastrebarsko has been assigned as National Coordination Centre for evaluation and monitoring of impact of atmospheric pollution and other factors on forestry ecosystems. Continues the National Environment Strategy (OG 46/02), which, as a priority in the field of soil, emphasises the establishment of the Soil Monitoring System at the national level: “ What needs to be done… C. To establish systematic soils monitoring in the Republic of Croatia… ” In 2002, the Government of the Republic of Croatia established the Croatian Environment Agency. The Regulation on the Establishment of the Croatian Environment Agency (OG 75/02) specifies the activities of the Agency: „ The activities of the Agency include the tasks of gathering and consolidating obtained data on environment, processing of these data and elaboration of reports, monitoring of the condition of environment, managing of databases on environment, reporting on environment, and notably: • or state authorities, the Government and the Croatian Parliament, ensures information necessary for efficient implementation of the environment protection policies, • develops and coordinates a unique information system for environment protection related to the system of monitoring the condition of environment in the Republic of Croatia, and gathers data on environment, • establishes and maintains referent centres with data bases relevant for monitoring of the condition of environment (socio-economic data, threats to environment, condition and quality of environment), • develops procedures for processing gathered data on the environment and their evaluation (modelling, predictions and visualisation), • performs expert and advisory affairs in determination of content, methodology and monitoring of the condition of environment, managing and monitoring projects and programmes for environment protection, … ” , The Environment Protection Act (OG 110/07) emphasises once again the need to monitor the condition and changes of soil, and to monitor emissions into the soil: • Article 20:” Soil protection includes the preservation of health and functions of the soil, prevention of soil damage, monitoring of the condition and changes of the quality of soil and repair and renewal of damaged soils and sites.” • Article 120:” „ Monitoring of the condition of environment includes: monitoring of emissions i.e. the quality of air, water, sea, soil, plant and animal life, and exploitation of mineral raw materials… ” Besides above mentioned Programme for the Protection of Croatian Soil from 1993 which did not obtain a legal support, until today, there were no other attempts to establish a systematic soil monitoring at the national level, not even in monitoring of agricultural land. The existing individual data have been gathered and analysed by using various, often incomparable methods, on small agricultural or forest areas, within various scientific and research projects and studies, and for various needs of institutions or as a consequence of ecological incidents. Data are stored on various locations - in government and scientific institutions and elsewhere. The majority of historical data is not stored on digital media (but in printed materials), so there is a potential risk that even information on existence of some data may be lost. The data flow to the Croatian Environment Agency has also never been established. The Environment Protection Act not earlier then in 2007 has specified the obligations to submit data to the Environment Information System. In the absence of data on the condition of soil for the needs of reporting on the condition of environment, in 2005, the Croatian Environment Agency, in cooperation with the Faculty of Agriculture of the University in Zagreb, applied the Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project to the contest of the European Commission for co-financing of projects in the field of development of policies and programmes of environment protection, through the financial instrument LIFE Third Countries. The European Commission approved co-financing of the Project in the maximum duration of three years. In January 2006, the implementation of project tasks and activities, and gathering of collaborators on the Project began. The Project Management Team was constituted of the employees of the Agency and the Faculty of Agriculture who actively participated in Project implementation, as well as representatives of relevant institutions whose activity is related to the soil. The role of the Project Management Team was to ensure the quality implementation of expert segments of the Project, based on the past experience and achieved working results, with administrative coordination of the Agency. Members of Project Management Team were: • Croatian Environment Agency: Hana Mesiæ ; , B.Sc. ; Andreja È ; idiæ ; , B.Sc. • Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Zagreb: professor Ivica Kisiæ ; PhD, professor Milan Mesiæ ; PhD, professor Stjepan Husnjak PhD, professor Ferdo Bašiæ ; PhD, professor Davor Romiæ ; PhD. • Faculty of Agriculture, Osijek: Blaženka Bertiæ ; PhD. • Institute for Soil, Osijek: Domagoj Klaiæ ; , B.Sc. ; Branka Komesaroviæ ; , MSc. • Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb: professor Nikola Pernar PhD. The Steering Committee of the Project was constituted of representatives of interested parties, state institutions, which were to have a key role in adopting legal measures for implementing the Soil Monitoring Programme, and which are at the same time potential main users of soil monitoring data. Members of the Steering Committee were: • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management: Ana Budanko Penaviæ ; , B.Sc. • Ministry of Environment Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Department for Soil Protection: Marija Vihovanec, B.Sc. • Ministry of Science, Education and Sport (Institute for Tourism and Agriculture, Poreè ; ): professor Ð ; ordano Peršuriæ ; , PhD. • Croatian waters, Department for Water Management: Ð ; orð ; a Mediæ ; , B.Sc. • Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Zagreb: professor Tomislav Æ ; osiæ ; , PhD, • Croatian Environment Agency: Rene Vukeliæ ; , B.Sc. In accordance with the name of the Project, the main objective was to elaborate the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme which is to define parameters to be gathered at soil monitoring stations and points, to recommend methods, standards and time dynamics for gathering, analysis, processing and transfer of soil data, to propose locations for spatial positioning of stations and points for soil monitoring, and to recommend an institutional framework and financial structure of the Soil Monitoring System at the national level.In December 2006, one of the first results of the Project: “ The Soil Monitoring Manual - first edition/working version” (CEA, 2006) was published. The Manuel unites categories and parameters for monitoring of agricultural, forestry and contaminated soils. Considering the natural diversity of Croatia, geographical characteristics, diversity of geological and lithological properties of soil, agro-ecological conditions, and based on the existing expert basis and experiences of European countries, criteria have been recommended for the selection of locations for future soil monitoring stations and points, procedures of field works and soil sampling, list of parameters, methods and standards (both Croatian and international) for physical, chemical and biological soil analysis, and a time frame and dynamics for gathering of soil data. By implementing the Pilot Projects for monitoring of agricultural, forestry and contaminated soils, the applicability of recommended field and laboratory procedures for soil monitoring has been tested: establishment of monitoring stations and points, soil sampling, preparation and analysis of samples in accordance with recommended standards. The results of the Pilot Projects implementation were presented in the publication “ Implementation Summary of the Pilot Projects for Monitoring of Agricultural, Forestry and Contaminated Soil” (CEA, 2008). Besides the Agency and the Faculty of Agriculture, during three years implementation of complex project tasks and activities, relevant expert and scientific institutions participated in the realisation: the Institute for Soil, the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb, Forest Research Institute Jastrebarsko, the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering of the University of Zagreb, the Croatian Geological Survey, the Croatian Centre for Cleaner Production, and Ekonerg - Energy and Environmental Protection Institute. The Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme is composed of three materials and elaborates monitoring procedures for agricultural soil, forestry soil and potentially contaminated and contaminated locations, taking into account the specificities of soil sampling, special parameters and different time dynamics of monitoring parameters considering the mode of soil usage. For each soil category, Programme proposes an institutional framework and obligations for soil monitoring implementation, recommends Referent Centres taking into account the existing legal regulations, and elaborates cost assessment and recommends sources of funding of the Soil Monitoring System at the national level. At the same time with the development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme, the Croatian Environment Agency initiated the establishment of the Croatian Soil Information System (CROSIS). A spatio-temporal georeferenced informatical Database on Croatian Soil has been elaborated. Besides central database which will contain available existing pedological data mostly gained from scientific and research projects and studies, Internet interface has been developed enabling the entry and processing of soil monitoring data and establishment of undisturbed data flow and data availability.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Geologija, Poljoprivreda (agronomija), Šumarstvo



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
024-0242049-2103 - Šumska staniša u uvjetima izloženosti štetnim utjecajima i klimatskim promjenama (Boris Vrbek, )
068-0682041-2782 - Elementi u tragovima u tlu šumskih ekosustava Medvednice (Nikola Pernar, )
178-0672345-2767 - Biljno-uzgojne mjere za poboljšanje kakvoće proizvoda iz ekološke poljoprivrede (Ivica Kisić, )
178-1780692-0694 - Konzervacijsko gospodarenje na tlima izloženim djelovanju erozije vodom (Ferdo Bašić, )
178-1780692-0695 - Gnojidba dušikom prihvatljiva za okoliš (Milan Mesić, )
178-1780692-2711 - Korelacija tla Hrvatske sa Svjetskom referentnom osnovom za tlo (Stjepan Husnjak, )
178-1782221-0350 - Zaslanjivanje tla - dijagnostika, procesi i utjecaj na biljku (Davor Romić, )
181-1811096-1181 - Osnovna geokemijska karta Republike Hrvatske (Josip Halamić, )
195-1953068-2704 - Dinarski krš: geološka evolucija, mineralne sirovine, paleotla i tla (Goran Durn, )

Ustanove
Hrvatski šumarski institut, Jastrebarsko,
Šumarski fakultet, Zagreb,
Agronomski fakultet, Zagreb,
Hrvatski geološki institut,
Rudarsko-geološko-naftni fakultet, Zagreb

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Mesić, Hana; Bakšić, Darko; Bašić, Ferdo; Čidić, Andreja; Durn, Goran; Husnjak, Stjepan; Kisić, Ivica; Klaić, Domagoj; Komesarović, Branka; Mesić, Milan et al.
Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme : Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project LIFE05 TCY/CRO/000105, Zagreb: Croatian Environment Agency, 2008 (prirucnik)
Mesić, H., Bakšić, D., Bašić, F., Čidić, A., Durn, G., Husnjak, S., Kisić, I., Klaić, D., Komesarović, B. & Mesić, M. (2008) Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme : Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project LIFE05 TCY/CRO/000105. Zagreb, Croatian Environment Agency.
@book{book, collectioneditor = {Ku\v{c}ar Dragi\v{c}evi\'{c}, Savka}, year = {2008}, pages = {136}, keywords = {agricultural, forest and polluted soil, soil monitoring, soil sampling}, isbn = {978-953-7582-03-6}, title = {Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme : Project Development of the Croatian Soil Monitoring Programme with a Pilot Project LIFE05 TCY/CRO/000105}, keyword = {agricultural, forest and polluted soil, soil monitoring, soil sampling}, publisher = {Croatian Environment Agency}, publisherplace = {Zagreb} }