Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 367070
Numizmatički nalazi s utvrde Čanjevo. Numismatic finds from Fort Čanjevo
Numizmatički nalazi s utvrde Čanjevo. Numismatic finds from Fort Čanjevo // Utvrda Čanjevo, istraživanja 2003-2007. Fort Čanjevo, researches 2003-2007 / Bekić, Luka (ur.).
Visoko: Općina Visoko, 2008. str. 235-241
Numizmatički nalazi s utvrde Čanjevo. Numismatic finds from Fort Čanjevo
(Numismatic finds from Fort Čanjevo)
Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Poglavlja u knjigama, znanstveni
Utvrda Čanjevo, istraživanja 2003-2007. Fort Čanjevo, researches 2003-2007
numizmatika, novac, medalje, Čanjevo, Hrvatska
(numismatics, coins, medals, Čanjevo, Croatia)
During six excavation campaigns of the fort Čanjevo, several numismatic finds have been found, among them 9 coins, 1 jeton and two saint medallions. These finds date from the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 18th century. To all appearances, they well present the period during which the fort was inhabited. Unfortunately, most of these finds are not quite useful for the dating of other finds because they were found outside the closed contexts, in the cave-ins from the fort or in the layers that do not correspond to them, regarding other finds. However, some of them give us very valuable information about dating. The first two examples were minted in Austria, in Vienna and Salzburg. They can be connected with the period when the family Špirančić were the proprietors of the fort. Silver pfennig of Fridrich III Habsbourg (number 1) has been found in the cave – in that was used for levelling out the ground in order to build the new fortress wall. The finds from this level could be attributed to the 15th century. The half of a silver Kreutzer of the bishop Lang Von Wellenburg has been found north of the wall 8, in the layer which we attribute to the much later period, based on other finds. After these two Austrian examples, several silver denarius appeared, minted in the Hungarian mint Kormocbany (Kremnica). It seems that this group could be connected with the Praškoci family period and the paying of the army garrison. They have been dated from 1581 to 1613, which could approximately correspond with the period when the garrison of haramyas (mercenary infantry) was settled. They have been found in different layers which do not correspond to their period neither stratigrafically nor as a chance find so they cannot help us with the dating of the layers. Silver coin, worth three Kreutzers of Ferdinand II, has been found during the excavation of the outside foundation of the round tower, outside the fort. In its vicinity, a cross guard of a hussar’ s sword has been found, which could corresponds with this cave-in, in terms of dating. In the cave – in on the slope an interesting copper adulterated denarius has been found, probably copy of the coin belonging to Ferdinand III. In this time, the adulterations were not rare and sometimes it is possible to detect the place they were secretly minted, for ex. in the cave in Slovakia (Jaskyni Sucha diera - Spiška Teplice SOJAK, HUNKA 2003). The silver duarius of Leopold I, minted in 1697 is also very important. It has been found on the waste dump, by the outside corner of the walls 7 and 8. In this layer, numerous finds have been found: ceramic dishes, knives, spoons, forks, pipes, etc. Thanks to this find, it is possible to date this dump in the year 1700. Regarding some historical research, this money as well as the finds from the dump could be attributed to the Jelačić family, which owned the fort at that time. Moreover, the rechenpfenning find, a tool for counting, minted in 1736, is also significant. Initials on a segment, I.I.D., indicate the engraver Johann Jacob Dietzel from Nürnberg. This find is the youngest on Čanjevo, so the discontinuation of inhabiting the hill dates from the first half of the 18th century, which has been information unknown till now. The saint medallions cannot be dated more precisely for now. Examples with the image of St. Benedict are the most often, and our medallion can be dated just approximately from the 15th to the 17th century. The other medallion, with the depiction of the Epiphany, is also quite often, but it is dated later, in the 18th century. 1- Čanjevo '06, Trench JJ, Layer 5, PN 34. Friedrich III von Habsburg (1452-1493).Vienna, after the year 1457. Ae: 12-19 mm. Pfennig minted on one side. Av: [H] W T In the middle the coat of arms of Vienna, with the cross. Rv: not minted (KOCH 1994, taf.83-fa 13 var ; MIRNIK, DUKAT 2005 ; three such examples have been known from the hoard Bukova near Virovitica, found in 1944). During excavation of the layer bellow the level of the defensive wall foundation, silver coin of Fridrich III von Habsburg (1452-1493), minted in Vienna, has been found. C-14 dating has also been done, based on charcoal that has been taken out directly under the north wall. Calibrated result from the laboratory in Kiel indicated the year 1443± ; 9, which, together with numismatic finds, clearly shows that the widening of the wall was done in the second half of the 15th century or even later, as we expected (BEKIĆ, IN PRESSa ; BEKIĆ, L., ČIMIN, R. IN PRESSb). 2- Čanjevo '06, Trench C, Layer 3, north of the wall Z8, PN 44. Matthäus Lang von Wellenberg (1519-1540). Salzburg, in 1528. Ae.16-17 mm. Minted on just one side. 1/2 Kreutzer. Av: 1528 Double coat of arms, a cardinal hat and a cross above them. Rv: not minted [SAURMA-JELTSCH 1986, no.893, ill.383 variation (other year)] Near the north wall (Z8) of this building, two silver coins have been found, one coin of the Hungarian king Matyas II, minted in Kormocbany in 1613, and the other of Mathaeuss Lang Von Wellenburg (1519-1540), Salzburg bishop, minted in 1528. It is obvious that this money came in the layer while digging up the fort during the reconstruction (BEKIĆ, U TISKUa ; BEKIĆ, L., ČIMIN, R. IN PRESSb). 3- Čanjevo '05, Trench C, Layer 2, PN 11. Rudolph II. (1577-1608). Hungary, Körmöcbánya, in 1581. Ae: 12 mm. Obolus. Av: 1581 In the middle the Hungarian crown and coat of arms. Rv: K  B The depiction of Mother of God with Christ (WESZERLE 1873. Table V, number 17.) Quite rare find is a silver obolus minted in Kormocbany in the period of Rudolph II, from the year 1581. It was not shown by Unger, just by Weserle. It has been found in the layer that should belong to the youngest period, regarding its dating (BEKIĆ 2005a, 245). 4- Čanjevo 04, chance find under the north cliff. Rudolph II (1577-1608). Hungary, Körmöcbánya, 1583.g. Ae: Denarius. Av: G• H• B• R• RUD• II• RO• I• S• AV• In the middle Hungarian crown and coat of arms. Rv: PATRO• 1853• HUNGA K  B The depiction of Mother of God with Christ (UNGER 1976, denarius number 811) Silver denarius minted for the Hungarian king Rudolph II, in 1583, in Kormocbanya. The coin has been lost again during the excavations, but fortunately, the whole text has been recorded (BEKIĆ 2005a 245). 5- Čanjevo '04, cleaning of the tower. Matyas II (1608-1619). Hungary. Körmöcbánya, in 1609. Ae. 14-15 mm. Denarius. Av: + MAT(HIASS)• II• D(EI)• G(RATIA)• REX• HVN(GARIE)• 1609 K  B In the middle Hungarian crown and coat of arms. Rv: [PAT]RONA8HVNGARI[E] The depiction of Mother of God with Christ (UNGER 1976, denarius nb.868.) Minted for the Hungarian king Matyas II, in 1609, in Kormocbanya ( Kremnica in Slovakia). This is also the first piece of money found on the fort, unfortunately in the cave- in of the ground that was slipping down the demolished north tower (BEKIĆ, SEKULA 2005, 80 ; BEKIĆ 2005a 242, 245). 6- Čanjevo '06, Trench C, Layer 3, north of the wall 8, PN 45 Matyas II ( 1608 -1619).Hungary, Körmöcbánya, in 1613. Ae. 14-15 mm. Denarius. Av: + MAT(HIASS)• II• D(EI)• G(RATIA)• BO(HEMIAE)• HVN(GARIE)• REX• 1613 K  B In the middle Hungarian crown and coat of arms. Rv: [P]ATRONA8HVNGARI[E] The depiction of Mother of God with Christ. (UNGER 1976, denarius number 869) Minted for the Hungarian king Matyas II, in 1609, in Körmöcbánya ( Kremnica in Slovakia). The money has been found on the north side of the wall 8 (BEKIĆ, IN PRESSa ; BEKIĆ, L., ČIMIN, R. IN PRESSb) 7- Čanjevo '07, Trench JJJ, Chance find, PN Ferdinand II (1619-1637). Ae. 17-19 mm. 3 Kreutzers. Av: FERDI• II• D R[.]• S• A• G• II• B• REX Bust facing right, crowned. Rv: ARCH• AV• D• [.] STRYIAE ET• Austrian double-headed crowned eagle, on the chest in the medallion stands Styrian lion, facing right, below in the oval circle 3. 8- Čanjevo '06, Trench K, Layer 2, PN 35. Hungary, the 17th century. Ae. 15 mm. Fake denarius. Av: [ ]ERO[ ]ROI[ ] In the middle the Hungarian crown and coat of arms. Rv: [PAT]RONA8VNG[ ] [ ]  I The illustration of Mother of God with Christ . (UNGER 1976, denarius number 748, variation?) It is adulterated denarius typical for that period, possibly of Ferdinand III (1637-1657). Probably the money was silver – plated, but traces of that are missing. Both legends have been written in irregular letters that were probably struck several times (BEKIĆ, IN PRESSa ; BEKIĆ, L., ČIMIN, R. IN PRESSb). 9- Čanjevo '07, Trench C, Layer 4 (pit), north of the wall 8, PN 87. Leopold I (1655-1705). Körmöcbánya, in 1697. Ae. 14-15 mm. Duarius. Av: LEOP• D• G• R• I• S• A• G• H• B• REX K  B In the middle Hungarian crown and coat of arms. Rv: P  K DUARIUS 1697 The depiction of Mother of God with Christ. Duarius is the money worth 2 Kreutzers. It was minted for the Hungarian area from the year 1693 to 1705 instead of 'Hungarian' denarius. Six of these coins make a Groschen, as it was prescribed by King’ s Patent on the 18th of September 1693. This money has been found in a big waste dump at the junction of the walls 7 and 8. 10- Čanjevo '05, Trench H, Layer 2, PN 7. Nürnberg, in 1736. Ae. 19 mm. Jeton (Rechenpfenning). Av: LUD[OVI?] GER• E• N• REX Bust facing right, laureate. Rv: RECHEN PFENNING  I I• D There is a lion facing right with the stretched right paw. (FORERR 1904, 588 ; SCHLICKEYSEN F.W.A. 1882, 201.) This is in fact so called rechenpfenning, a tool for counting. Initials in the segment, I.I.D. probably indicate the engraver Johann Jacob Dietzela from Nürnberg, from 1736. It is considered that he was active from the year 1710 to 1740, making medals and similar things (BEKIĆ 2005a 246). 11- Čanjevo 07, Trench L, Layer 3, north of the wall Z22, PN. 15th to 17th century. Ae: 21x29 -mm. Saint medallion. Av: • BENEDICT • CRVX• S• P• St Benedict stands, facing front, in the left hand holding a glass with a snake, in the right hand a long stick with a cross. Rv: • IHS• V• R• S• N• S• M• V• S• M• Q• L• I• V• B• In the middle of the medallion is a cross with a text written vertically- CSSML ; horizontally- NDSMD C S P  B (KUNCZE 1885, var. CII3, s.300-303 ; KNEZ 2001, br.6, s.37) St Benedict is a founder of the Benedictine order, born in 483, died in 543 (KUNCZE 1885, 300). On reverse side there are many abbreviations. Their meanings are meant to protect the bearer. The meaning of the abbreviation CSSML is Crux Sacra Sit Mihi Lux, that is May the holy Cross be for me a light ; NDSMD Non Draco Sit Mihi Dux - Let not the dragon be my guide ; CSPB Crux Sancti Patris Benedicti – Cross of the Holy Father Benedict ; VRSNSMV. Vade retro Satana ; nunquam suade mihi vana - Step back Satan / Never tempt me with vain things ; SMQLIVB Sunt mala quae libas ; ipse venena bibas - Evil are the things thou profferest, drink thou thy own poison. Medallions with the image of St Benedict are among the most often used. They were made in many various types and according to Kuncze, our could belong to the type CII3. The same example from Ljubljana, Knez dates from the period from the 15th to 17th century. 12- Čanjevo '07, Trench L, Layer 2, north of the wall 22, PN 100 From the 17th to the 18th century. Ae. 21x22 -mm. Saint medallion. Av: The depiction of the Epiphany and Holy Mother with Christ. Rv: S3REGES GASPAR• MELC HIOR• BALTHAS AR• ORA• PRONO BIS• NVNCETIHO RA• MORTIS NOSTRA (KUNCZE 1885, var. IIB7E, s.268, 269 ; KNEZ 2001, nb.148, s.107) This medallion is quite often found. There are many examples, which include different depiction on averse and a slightly different text (KNEZ 2001, nb.148. s.107, this variant dates from the 18th century). This example could be dated from the 17th to 18th century. Numismatic finds from the fort Čanjevo are very valuable for the researchers, because they are rarely found during the excavation of burgs. Regarding its fragility and small dimensions, it is very difficult to find them during the examining the large quantity of the construction cave-in. These 10 or so examples help us in general dating of the inhabiting of the fort, and some of them give very valuable information, considering the dating of particular phases of the construction or closed contexts. I hope that during the following excavations such finds will be more numerous in order to collect enough number for making a statistic analysis of the circulation of the money on Kalnik from the 14th to the 18th century.
Citiraj ovu publikaciju
Visoko: Općina Visoko, 2008. str. 235-241