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108 years of university forestry education in Croatia - tradition and challenges


Anić, Igor
108 years of university forestry education in Croatia - tradition and challenges // Periodicum biologorum, 109 (2007), 1; 87-88 (podatak o recenziji nije dostupan, uvodnik, ostalo)


Naslov
108 years of university forestry education in Croatia - tradition and challenges

Autori
Anić, Igor

Izvornik
Periodicum biologorum (0031-5362) 109 (2007), 1; 87-88

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, uvodnik, ostalo

Ključne riječi
University education; forestry; Croatia

Sažetak
University forestry education in Croatia began in 1898 by establishing the Forestry Academy with the University of Zagreb. The Academy was opened on October 20 1898 as a part of the Faculty of Philosophy (Mudroslovni fakultet). On the same day, another three events took place. The newly built Forestry Home (Šumarski dom) was ceremoniously opened ; the regular 22nd Assembly of the Croatian-Slavonian Forestry Society was held, and the rector of Zagreb University for the school year 1898/99 was inaugurated. At the ceremony of opening the Academy, the Rector announced the following: “ The University is recording a particularly important event in its development and life. Through gradual improvement in different branches of human knowledge, the University is welcoming in this school year a new scientific branch … ” The Forestry Academy was accommodated in the building of the Forestry Home. The university forestry education was preceded by numerous significant events that marked the history of forestry profession, science and education. Among them are the following: the appearance and development of forestry in Europe in the course of 18th century ; the establishment of the first forest management offices in Croatia in 1765 in Krasno, Oštarije and Petrova Gora ; the founding of the crafts association named “ Hrvatsko-slavonsko šumarsko društvo” (Croatian-Slavonian Forestry Society) in 1846 ; the opening of the school of forestry in Križevci in 1860 ; the first issue of the scientific forestry journal “ Šumarski list” in 1877 ; the establishment of a specialised institute for karst amelioration and torrent regulation in Senj in 1878, and the activities of the Croatian forestry experts who graduated at foreign forestry schools. Several documents of legislative power preceded the opening of the Forestry Academy. They guided the development of the forestry branch, science and education in Croatia toward close to nature and sustainable forest management. Among the most significant such documents is the forest order of the Trieste commercial commissariat (“ Šumski red tršćanske komercijalne Intendance” ) of the year 1767. Most principles of this document have remained unchanged until present day. One of them is that, considering their extension and long duration of the production, forests are national assets and cannot be the objects of unlimited exploitation of individuals. Another unchanged principle says that forests are not the exclusive ownership of the present generations, but also belong to the future ones. Two years after issuing this document, Maria Theresa issued another one in German and Croatian languages: the Forest Order (“ Šumski red” ). This document is not only considered the first Croatian forest law, but was also the first forestry handbook in the Croatian language. Forest Order introduced sustainable forest management. The principle of sustainability was again emphasised in the Forest Law of the year 1852, which stated that no forestland could be taken or converted into another culture, while the forest owners must use the services of the professional forestry staff. The Forest Law explicitly quotes that sustainable management had to be introduced into municipal forests, and that academic education of foresters were indispensable. In the school year of 1919/20, the independent Forestry Faculty (“ Gospodarsko-šumarski fakultet” ) of Zagreb University was established, taking over all authorities of the Forestry Academy. The first dean was the reputable forestry expert Professor Andrija Petračić. In 1921, the first special forestry institute for scientific research was established – Institute for Forestry Research (Zavod za istraživanja u šumarstvu). In 1960, the Faculty was divided into two independent parts, Faculty of Forestry and Faculty of Agriculture. The first dean of the Forestry Faculty of Zagreb University was the Academician Dušan Klepac. Since forestry is associated with biology, ecology, technical and economic sciences, the university curriculum has always included the respective lecture courses. Accordingly, the curricula of the old Forestry Academy included “ mathematical subjects and graphical exercises” : mathematics, descriptive geometry, construction drawing, geodesy, and technical drawing. There were also technical subjects: general building engineering, technical and building mechanics, water-supply engineering and bridge constructions, road and railway building, forestry mechanical engineering, and forest transport mechanisation. In 1908, a geodetic course was opened at the Forestry Academy for the first time. It will later be transferred to the newly opened High Technical School. Conceived from the very beginning after the principles of the natural forestry school, the biological/ecological lecture courses developed under the name of Zagreb School of Silviculture. Its fundamental principles are the following: sustainability, close to nature forest management, preservation of the natural structure and diversity ; natural forest regeneration, preservation of stability, and forest tending for supporting both the economic and non-commercial forest functions. These principles have permeated the program of the university forestry education in Zagreb throughout its history. Between 1898 and 1907, the forestry studies at the Forestry Academy lasted for three years. After 1908, they became four-year-studies. The first radical changes in the four-year curriculum were carried out in 1947, when it was divided into two courses – forestry and wood industry. This marked the beginning of the education of wood-technological experts in this country. The latest Bologna reform of high education at the Faculty of forestry of Zagreb University initiated the establishment of four three-year pre-graduate studies – Forestry, Urban Forestry, Nature Conservation and Environmental Protection, and Wood technology. After that, students are offered two-year graduate studies in the field of forestry (courses: Silviculture and Forest Management Planning with Wildlife Management and Technique, Technology and Management in Forestry), Urban Forestry, Nature Conservation and Environmental Protection, Wood Technology Processes, and Design of Wood Products. Upon finishing the graduate studies, students can continue at a two-year post-graduate specialisation, or a three-year post-graduate doctor’ s studies. In its one hundred and eight years of continuous activity, the Faculty of Forestry in Zagreb educated 4, 506 graduated forestry engineers and 1, 617 graduated engineers of wood technology. The academic title of the Master of Science in post-graduate studies and the Master of Science in post-graduate specialist studies was achieved by two hundred and seven students – 151 of them in the scientific field of forestry, while 86 students achieved the title in the scientific field of wood technology. There have been altogether 180 successful doctorate candidates – 131 in forestry, and 49 in wood technology. Professor Josip Balen defended the first doctor’ s thesis in silviculture titled “ Bora and its significance for karst amelioration” in 1923. The forestry faculty in Zagreb is the only institute of high education of the kind in the Republic of Croatia. Of the 172 employed, 88 constitute to the scientific and educational staff. At the moment, 765 students study ate the Faculty. The scientific, educational, and professional activities of the Faculty are carried out in departments and institutes. The Faculty is divided into the Department of Forestry and the Department of Wood Technology. The following institutes are encompassed by the Forestry Department: Institute of Ecology and Silviculture ; Institute of Surveying and Forest Management ; Institute of Forestry Genetics, Dendrology and Botany ; Institute of Forest Engineering ; Institute of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, and Institute of Educational and Experimental Areas. The Wood Technology Department includes the following institutes: Institute of Wood Science ; Institute of the Technology of Materials ; Institute for Production Organisation ; Institute of Processing Techniques, and the Institute of Furniture and Wood Products. The following laboratories and educational/experimental forest areas are the facilities intended for education, research and practical work with students: Ecological and Pedological Laboratory ; L. for Measuring Forest Resources ; Molecular Biological Laboratory ; L. for technical and technological Measurements in Forestry ; L. for Tree Pathology ; Educational and Experimental forest Areas in Lipovljani, Velika, Zalesina, Rab, and Zagreb with forest gardens ; L. for Anatomic Properties and Wood Protection ; L. for Hydro-thermal Processing of Wood and Wood Materials ; Chemical Laboratory ; L. for Measuring Noise and Vibration ; L. for Testing Furniture and Furniture Parts, and Laboratory for Testing of Wood Building Components. The Faculty of Forestry in Zagreb is an internationally recognised institution for education of the staff needed in forestry, wood processing and furniture production. Offering economic and social advantages and possibilities, these branches are significant sources of employment and economic progress in this country and throughout the world, provided that the multi-functional role of the forest is respected. In terms of this, the scientific research challenges of the Faculty are associated with the following fields: natural forest management, reforestation of deforested lands, forest ecology, Croatian forest vegetation, forest management planning ; wildlife management ; forest protection ; nature conservation and environmental protection ; ecologically acceptable forestry techniques and technologies ; wood materials ; wood-technological processes, and the design and construction of wood products.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Šumarstvo



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
068-0682041-1950 - Dinamika obnove bukovo-jelovih prašuma hrvatskih Dinarida (Igor Anić, )

Ustanove
Šumarski fakultet, Zagreb

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Igor Anić, (204100)

Časopis indeksira:


  • Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC)
    • Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXP)
    • SCI-EXP, SSCI i/ili A&HCI
  • Scopus


Uključenost u ostale bibliografske baze podataka:


  • AGRICOLA
  • CAB Abstracts
  • EMBASE (Excerpta Medica)