Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 277025
Povijesno-zemljopisne osnove razvoja Nina i problemi njegove suvremene valorizacije
Povijesno-zemljopisne osnove razvoja Nina i problemi njegove suvremene valorizacije, Zadar: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, 1995 (monografija)
Povijesno-zemljopisne osnove razvoja Nina i problemi njegove suvremene valorizacije
(The Historical and Geographical Basis of Nin Urban Development and the Problems of Its Modern Valorisation)
Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija knjige
Autorske knjige, monografija, znanstvena
Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti
Nin; Hrvatska; zadarska regija; urbani razvoj; povijesno-zemljopisni razvoj; problemi suvremenog razvoja
(Nin; Croatia; Zadar region; urban development; historical-geographical development; recent development problems)
THE HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL BASIS OF NIN URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE PROBLEMS OF ITS MODERN VALORISATION Continuing the geographic exploration of Zadar region, this time, the author has chosen Nin and its area, formerly beeing the capital of the medieval Croatian State. Discussing primarily Nin area historical geographical basis and development, the author has made an introduction analysing precizely the natural geographic characteristics (geomorphology, climate, waters, vegetation and soils). Nin is situated in the western part of Zadar region on the Adriatic coast of Southern Croatia, and its area includes the part of mainland as well as the part of Zadar archipelago - the island of Vir. It covers an area of 123, 82 km2 all together. There are seven statistical settlements in this area (Nin, Vir, Privlaka, Zaton, Ninski Stanovi, Vrsi, Poljica) with 9.813 inhabitants in 1991. 88, 76 km of the sea coast opened to the northwest and west belong here, too. This area continues to Ravni Kotari area to the southwest and east. The northwest sea coasts are opened to the Nin-Ljubač Chanel between Ravni Kotari and the Pag island, as well as to the Vir Sea and the Privlaka Zaton and Zaton in the west. With regard to its geomorphology Nin area has all the well known features that characterize the surrounding planar zone of Ravni Kotari in the Zadar region. The heights are not specially ponted out. The highest tops are Barbenjak (115 m) and St. Juraj (112 m) both situated in the insular zone of Vir. The main tops in this part of Ravni Kotari are Kita (77 m), Gradina (66 m), Rušinova straža (58 m) etc. The Nin area coast is well carved with lots of little bays and ports (Jasenovo, Ninski zaljev, Slatine, Biskupnjače, Gredine, Bruselina, Privlački zaton, Skrapavac, Batalaža, Mostine, Dražnik, Viševica etc.) and peninsulas among which the biggest and longest one is sandy Privlaka. Besides calcareous zones and hills, whose karst forms are well expressed (caves, karst holes, swallow holes, karst fields - "polje", cliff coasts etc.), the alluvial and flysch formations of Miljašić jaruga (Ričina) valley have a great historical and geographical importance in the life and development of settlements as well as other fertile micro areas such as Jasenovo, flysch and sandy zones of the island Vir etc. The Miljašić jaruga valley opens widely to the Nin Bay forming a low and sandy coast, with sandy klifs here and there and with rich peloid zone of medical mud, which is the result of the complex litoral chemical and hidrogemorphological processes. The inhabitants cultivate vine, olives, figs, cereals, vegetables etc. mostly to supply their own needs. From breeding sheep, pigs, cows and horses, which still exists in spite of having decreased lately, inhabitants get meat, milk, cheese, leather and other stuff. The production of salt has been well known in Nin and Privlaka since the antique period as well as the medical peloid therapies in Ninsko blato and Ždrijac. The process of seminomad transhumant cattle breeding on the line Ravni Kotari - Velebit - Lika, which has been an important traditional economic activity too, has lasted during the whole period from prehistoric age to nowadays. The clima-zonal vegetation almost totally degraded by longlasting cut and extensive live-stock farming, has been revitalizing recently, and today it covers a great deal of this area. It consists of the sorts which characterize the border between eumediterranean and submediterranean fitogeographic area. The first part of the main chapter deals with historical geographical development obviously present from the prehistoric age to the present day. A lot of prehistoric findings (Paleolithic animal bone remains, Early Neolithic settlement near the salt mine, Middle Neolithic Age remains in Privlaka, Vrsi etc., the Late Neolithic Age remains, Aeneolithic Age remains with some burials, toumulous and Bronze Age remains) confirm it. The Iron Age is characterized by ethnogenesis and culture of the Liburnians whose domination created Aenona as one of the most important liburnian centres. The second part is dedicated to the historical development of this area. The most significant and impressive antique period of Roman rule is qualified by the author as the flourishing time of Nin's development. The privilege of the beeing roman municipality gave Nin a quite new economical and cultural importance and remarkable civilisation achievement. Middle Ages centuries were characterized by creation and development of the Croatian state whose first beginning is entirely connected with this area of Nin. From 8th to 11th century Nin played a very important part among the city centres in Croatia, not only as a capital of the state, but also as a bishop centre developed Middle Ages, still having an expressive central function in Hungarian and Croatian kingdom. Nin forms its autonomus municipality recognized by the king and other relevant powers of that time (Venice etc.). In the Late Middle Ages the Republic of Venice expanded on the eastern Adriatic coast which obliged Nin to recognize its rule as well as Zadar and most of other centres of this area. The expansion of Ottoman Empire and wars (faught practically from the beginning of 16th to the end of 17thC.) prevented almost completely ruined Nin and whole area from developing. The swamps of the low coast near the Ričina mouth caused malaria, which was practically present till the beginning of the 19thC. when the theritory was successfully sanitated. In spite of these disasters the traditional forms of landuse, cattle breeding and transhumancy still existed, especially after the border between Venice and Ottoman Empire was stabilized. The whole process was enabled by the last members of local landowners, church and Nin commune council who found refuge in neighbouring Zadar. New immigrants from inland try constantly to ignore their obligations towards church and government. They keep their cattleman customs, and their transformation to the sedentary way of life in the mediterranean zone was extremely hard and slow. At the end of 18th century agricultural and cattle breeding development was initiated according to the European standards but there were many problems owing to malaria and bad relations between landowners and colons. However, for a certain period one of bigger agricultural properties of eastern Adriatic, with the initial tabacco production was going on. The results of the Industrial Revolution at the beginning of 19thC. accompanied by modernisation of the traffic system in Croatia, didn't obtain much success in this area because of bad political situation and still existing sanitary problems. It's only when the Austrian rule was introduced that the economic, traffic and postal system development was enabled. The agriculture and traditional brick and tile production were revived, too. Towards the end of Austrian rule the mouth of Ričina and the port of Nin were assanated and malaria disappeared. This was a revolutionary enterprise. The archeological excavations attracted more attention too however not in the measure they deserved. After Austro-Hungarian Empire break-down the developing was slow in whole Croatia, especially in this area. As Zadar, formerly being the capital of Dalmatia, was annected to Italy, Nin found itself isolated in traffic and economy. It provoked stagnation which lasted till the fifties of this century, when its commune was again significantly reduced. However, the salt mine and brickyard were restored. The most important achievement of the socialist period till 1970. was partly built electrification, traffic and waterworks systems. During the following ten years Nin was almost completely neglected by the communist authorities. Only building a gas tool factory and labaratories of "Cenmar" marikulture industry as well as an attractive turist settlement at Zaton, have stimulated faster development recently. The final chapter of this thesis is related to the sociogeographical transformation of Nin and its area after the World War II. The author analyses main demographical and economic geographical characteristics of Nin area. In the end the author points out dilemmas and prospective plans of spatial development and the treatment of Nin in contemporary spatial plans of the city and its area. Attention is also given to the problems of recent geographical valorisation of Nin and its area, to the central-functions complex and to the problem of reconstitution of the commune of Nin (suspended in 1961.). The work is complemented by: introduction, summary in English, graphics, literature, archival and cartographic sources, and the index of geographical names.
Sažetak na engleskom jeziku, Indeks mjesta i naselja, 26 grafičkih priloga na str. 171-198.