Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 2637
Water management and accreditation of Croatian laboratories
Water management and accreditation of Croatian laboratories // Interpretation of analytical results and the role of proficiency testing in accreditation / Zupančić-Kralj, Lucija (ur.).
Ljubljana, Slovenija: Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Univ. Ljubljana, 1997. str. 91-94 (predavanje, nije recenziran, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), stručni)
Water management and accreditation of Croatian laboratories
Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u zbornicima skupova, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), stručni
Interpretation of analytical results and the role of proficiency testing in accreditation / Zupančić-Kralj, Lucija - Ljubljana, Slovenija : Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Univ. Ljubljana, 1997, 91-94
Fourth Annual Meeting of the AOAC International Central Europe Subsection
Mjesto i datum
Bled, Slovenija, 13-14.11.1997
Certification; quality assessment
(Ovlašćivanje; ocjena kakvoće)
Water quality protection Natural water of highest quality is the Croatian resource of outmost value. The policy of water management is therefore directed toward the protection of water resources. The net of laboratories exist, which are involved in the regular analysis of the industrial and domestic waste waters with respect to toxic and harmful substances. The purpose is to establish the register of polluters and to apply the polluter-paying principle (1). The funds are partially intended for the construction of new waste water treatment plants. The laboratories involved in regular monitoring programme of surface and ground waters as well as of coastal seawater areas determine the basic physical, basic and specific chemical, microbiological and biological parameters in order to define water quality. Due to the fact that these laboratories originate from different sectors, the State Water Directorate introduced since 1991 the system audit of laboratories. The basic requirements regarding the laboratory space, equipment for the correct performance of the tests and measurements, which the laboratory claims to be competent to carry out and the qualified personnel relative to the claimed competence, were defined by Regulations in 1991. Recently, a new Regulations (2) have been issued, which define additional activities of certified laboratories like estimating the quality and composition of sediments sampled from surface waters and coastal marine areas, ecotoxicological properties of waste waters and chemicals which enter the recipient. Under the guidance of State Water Directorate, in 1991 the National reference laboratory, Center for Marine Research Zagreb, Ruđer Bošković Institute, has been nominated and since than the procedure of laboratory certification has started. At this moment, around 60 laboratories are certified for the analysis of various parameters in different water types. Certification Beside the Regulations (2), Law on Standardization (3) defines the basic requirements for testing laboratories, with the purpose to equalize the working conditions among laboratories and consequently the reported results. The system audit of laboratories which analyze different water types, is an aspect of quality assurance. Certification is based on those criteria which are considered essential to generate valid data and is a formal recognition that the laboratory is competent to carry out a specific test or specific type of test. An European Standard (4), translated to Croatian, has recently become operative. It brings the general criteria for the technical competence of testing laboratories, irrespective of the sector involved. This standard is intended for the use by testing laboratories and their accreditation bodies as well as other bodies concerned with the recognition of the competence of testing laboratories. With the change in the economic system, the new working conditions imply to laboratories, too. It is required that the results of measurements fulfill the defined quality. Certification procedure is based on those criteria which are essential to generate valid data and is a formal recognition of the competence of the laboratory. Quality assurance, by which the measurement errors are reduce to the acceptable limits and the achieved results have the known accuracy and precision is the basis of validated results. The programme of quality assessment, as a part of quality assurance, makes possible to confirm that the measurement errors are within statistically defined acceptance limits, i.e. that the results are under statistical control. Quality assessment Existing are internal and external procedures of quality assessment. An important aspect of external quality assessment is the validation of analytical procedure and consequently the results of the analysis by means of certified and/or reference samples and the participation in intercomparison runs. Certified laboratories are especially encouraged to participate in internationally conducted intercomparison exercises. The best assessment of the analytical performance is obtained with the results of the analysis of certified and/or reference sample(s). For that purpose, the proper selection of the certified sample is important. It should be of similar composition and concentration level of determinand as the analyzed sample. Croatian laboratories involved in monitoring the water quality have participated in several intercomparison runs organized since 1991 by the National reference laboratory. The National reference laboratory conducted the intercomparison run for basic and specific parameters of waste waters with the certified samples for model waste water prepared by USEPA. The exercises have been performed at two concentration levels of the pollutants representative of their content in waste waters. In that manner, beside testing the operational, instrumental performance, the acceptability of the applied analytical method has also been evaluated. In addition, the Narional reference laboratory conducted the intercomparison run on metal content in the NRCC certified river water sample. An important aspect of proficiency testing is the participation of certified laboratories in internationally conducted intercomparison runs. Certain Croatian certified laboratories participate in international intercomparison runs, organized within the Transnational Danube river basin monitoring programme. Further on, the laboratories which participate in the National monitoring programme of the coastal seawater, participate in intercomparison runs conducted by IAEA-MESL, Monaco laboratory. In those exercises the content of toxic metals and the halogenated and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the samples of marine biota and sediments was determined. A part of the quality assurance consists in the application of validated, internationally recognized analytical methods. In that respect, at the State Office for Standardization and Metrology, the Technical committee TC-147 "Water Quality", has been founded in 1995. The activity of TC-147 is predominantly based on the engagement of top professionals from various Institutions, with long term experience in various aspects of water quality. The aim is to take over the International and European standards. The organization of the TC-147 is similar to the one by ISO i.e. it consists of seven subcommittees, namely for terminology, physical, chemical and biochemical methods, radiological methods, microbiological and biological methods as well as those defining precision and accuracy. The activity of TC-147 has started in taking over the standards related to terminology and sampling as the basic standards which have implications on the complete activity in the area of water quality. The Croatian professional vocabulary, which defines terms related to various aspects of water quality, has been established, and will be consistently applied throughout the standards. Due to the fact that within TC-147 around 150 ISO standards on water quality exist, the Law on Standardization (3) makes possible to apply the ISO standards as the original, without the necessity to translate all of them to the Croatian. Such a decision will allow that the translation of ISO standards will proceed with lower pace but with highest possible quality. Literature: 1)Guidance for conducting evidence about the frequency of dangerous and harmful substances released into waters, their quantity and composition, and the mode of submitting the data obtained to public water management enterprises, Narodne novine (Official Journal) 9(1990) 129-136. 2)Regulations about obligatory requirements to be fulfilled by the certified laboratories, Narodne novine (Official Journal) 78(1997) 2501-2506. 3)Law on Standardization, Narodne novine (Official Journal) 55(1996) 2336-2343. 4)Croatian Standard HRN EN 45001, First edition, March 1996, State Office for Standardization and Metrology.