–ѕа°±б>ю€ 24ю€€€1€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€м•Ѕ7 шњјbjbjUU . 7|7| €€€€€€lNNNNNNNb2 bKґJ```````ВДДДДДД$ ! ƒ®]N`````®јNN``јјј`tN`N`Вј`Вј¬јВNNВ`> NAЎК∆bЉ‘|ВВ0KВе Ppе ВјbbNNNNўPsychometric tests distinguish frontotemporal dementia from AD: A clinicopathologic study Liscic Rajka M*, 3, Storandt Martha2, 3, Cairns Nigel Jє, ≥, Morris John Cє, ≥ Topic area: Early detection and diagnosis Keyword(s): Frontotemporal lobar degeneration- Alzheimer's disease- Psychometric tests- APOE- Amyloid beta - Early symptoms Background: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that may be mistaken clinically for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A proportion of patients who meet the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD have FTLD confirmed at autopsy with or without neuropathological AD-type changes. Cerebral deposition of A( peptide is the initiating event in AD, associated with APOE µ4 allele. Thus, more sensitive clinical diagnostic tools are required to distinguish between the pathological phenotypes. Objectives: To identify clinical features, including psychometric tests that might reliably distinguish AD from FTLD at initial presentation. To asses the role of APOE µ4 allele as a determinant for coexisting A≤ pathology. Methods: A retrospective review of 48 neuropathologically confirmed cases of FTLD (70.6±9.5 years; 27 had completed psychometric testing) yielded clinical and neuropsychological features for comparison with 27 age-, sex-, education-, and severity-matched individuals with AD. Neary clinical criteria for FTLD were used and a standard battery of psychometric tests was administered. Where DNA was available, cases were APOE genotyped. Results: At first visit, those with FTLD demonstrated more disinhibition and impulsivity (p=0.0004, FischerТs exact test), and less withdrawal (p=0.01) than those with AD. They also had more dysfluency (p=0.01), agrammatism (p=0.004), and speech hesitancy (p=0.03). The two clinical phenotypes had comparable executive dysfunction (p=0.33), but the AD group had more memory complaints (p=0.01). The FTLD individuals performed better than those with AD on a visual test of episodic memory but worse on word fluency (p<0.05) (performance correlated with aphasic features). Only 4 of 35 individuals who were genotyped had one APOE µ4 allele. 11/48 cases had additional AD-type pathology. Conclusions: Clinical and cognitive features of FTLD may overlap with AD, particularly for memory and executive function, although behavioral problems and language difficulties distinguish those with FTLD. Psychometric tests help distinguish FTLD from AD, especially word fluency task, sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction. APOE µ4 allele frequency of 6% in FTLD is similar to that of normal aged individuals. Compounding the overlap of FTLD and AD clinical phenotypes is the presence of AD-type pathology in one-fourth of FTLD individuals. Author information: *Liscic Rajka M, MD, PhD. Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska St. 2, P.O.Box 291, 10001 Zagreb, Croatia,  HYPERLINK "mailto:rliscic@imi.hr" rliscic@imi.hr, and єDepartments of Neurology, Pathology and Immunology, ≤Psychology and the ≥ADRC, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA Z[ijm~ВГДУХ¶®™ђґRS]24Дƒ§Ї¬ “ b d r д л rИь®Yхц)*Њъсксасасасасасўѕўћ∆ћЅєЅ∞ћ∆ћ™∞Я∆ћ∆ћ∞ћ∆ћ∞ћўФўЖФ}Фў0JCJmHsHБjCJUmHsHjCJUmHsH6БB*CJaJph CJ\БaJB*CJaJph jbCJaJCJaJ 6БCJ]БCJ6БCJ]БmHsH CJmHsH0J>*B*H*ph€ 0JB*ph€0J>*B*ph€ 5БCJ\Б0@Z[™ђ÷RS§d д rWXYZnЊњјээыыыццццццццццццццы$a$јэЊњјыmHsH,1Рh∞В. ∞∆A!∞"∞#Р†$Р†%∞∞ƒ∞ƒ РƒњD–…кyщЇќМВ™K© rliscic@imi.hrа…кyщЇќМВ™K© ,mailto:rliscic@imi.hr i8@с€8 NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH <A@т€°< Default Paragraph Font4B@т4 Body Text$a$mHsH.U@Ґ. 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