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Duje Rendić-Miočević the numismatist. Sažetak: Duje Rendić-Miočević kao numizmatičar

Mirnik, Ivan
Duje Rendić-Miočević the numismatist. Sažetak: Duje Rendić-Miočević kao numizmatičar // Illyrica antiqua. Ob honorem Duje Rendić-Miočević / Šegvić, Marina ; Mirnik, Ivan (ur.).
Zagreb: Odsjek za arheologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu ; Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu ; FF Press, 2005. str. 23-29 (predavanje, domaća recenzija, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), znanstveni)

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Duje Rendić-Miočević the numismatist. Sažetak: Duje Rendić-Miočević kao numizmatičar
(Duje Rendić-Miočević the numismatist)

Mirnik, Ivan

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u zbornicima skupova, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), znanstveni

Illyrica antiqua. Ob honorem Duje Rendić-Miočević / Šegvić, Marina ; Mirnik, Ivan - Zagreb : Odsjek za arheologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu ; Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu ; FF Press, 2005, 23-29

Illyrica antiqua. Ob honorem Duje Rendić-Miočević. International conference on issues in Ancient Archaeology. Međunarodni skup o problemima antičke arheologije

Mjesto i datum
Zagreb, Hrvatska, 06-08.11.2003

Vrsta sudjelovanja

Vrsta recenzije
Domaća recenzija

Ključne riječi
numizmatika; Rendić-Miočević Duje
(numismatics; Rendić-Miočević Duje)

It can be said without any doubt that in Duje Rendić-Miočević we had the best possible teacher of epigraphy and numismatics. His own training had been exceptional.He studied archeology at the University of Zagreb Faculty of Philosophy, where the courses in epigraphy and numismatics were still given by Professor Viktor Hoffiller, another scholar trained in Vienna and successor of two eminent Croatian archaeologists and numismatists both Viennese scholars, Don Šime Ljubić and Professor Josip Brunšmid. Hoffiller did not publish many papers dealing with numismatics, but his knowledge of all fields of numismatics was profound and his experience with ancient and more recent coins great. Therefore Duje Rendić-Miočević learned much and was in his turn in a position to transmit his knowledge to students of archaeology. He was a very gifted teacher – his personal appearance was handsome and elegant, his manner that of a true 19th century nobleman, which he was, his voice and diction were exceptional. He had a rare talent of lecturing in such a manner that none of his courses was ever boring to anyone. Of course, there were a few even more impressive teachers who were able to transform a lecture into a theatrical performance – the most flamboyant lecturer was, in my opinion, the late Branimir Gabričević. Still, I always prefered the gentleman-like approach of Duje Rendić-Miočević. I can only say from my own experience that all the generations who had the fortune of attending his lectures learned very much indeed. I am sorry for the younger generations who came to the Faculty after his retirement and his death, who were not so privileged. I still have notes taken during various courses in numismatics and epigraphy. From the notes of three courses I myself could give lectures to students without any problem. I have similar scripta made during the Greek course given by Radoslav Katičić which too are so good that they could serve for a similar purpose. Numismatics were taught in the second year of study and they were continued every second year. On 12 October 1965 we were acquainted with basic literature dealing with the Roman Republican and Imperial coinages. This was followed by an introduction into the Roman Republican coinage, its terminology, metrology and chronology. We slowly learned what was the obverse and the reverse of a coin, what was the exergue of the bronze coinage. On 24 November 1965 we learned all about silver coins, about the denarii, quinarii, bigati, quadrigati, victoriati, serrati etc. the relation of silver to gold throughout the existence of Rome. More about the typology and metrology of coins was given on 1 December – monetary magistrates, the familiae monetales, rationales, procuratores monetae augusti, dispensatores etc. were brought to our attention on 15 December 1965. The proceeding within a mint was described by Professor Rendić-Miočević and so were the mint-marks and other marks on the reverse, on 21 December 1965. A list of Roman mints and their mint-marks was presented to us on 5 January 1966 – in addition a bibliography of books and articles on Roman Imperial and provincial mints was offered. Having begun to tell us about the mint at Siscia, in the following term for a lecture which took place on 12 January we also learned something about the mints of Sirmium and Viminacium. On 23 February 1966 our professor began to teach us the topic he was most interested in, the Graeco-Illyrian coinage, and he wrote on the blackboard the titles of the most important works dealing with it. So we copied the names of Ljubić, Evans, Brunšmid, Scheiger, Lisičar, Novak, Franke, but also of D. Rendić-Miočević. After this introduction, on 2, 9 and 23 March followed most interesting sections dealing with the cities where coins were issued. More was told about Illyrian silver coinage on 13 April of the same year, and in addition we heard about the coins of Illyrian kings. King Ballaios was dealt with on 4 May 1966 Two years later I had the opportunity to attend more lectures on numismatics. On 8 November 1968 an introduction in Greek numismatics was given and so was an information on Greek colonization of the Eastern Adriatic shore. Various problems of Graeco-Illyrian coinage and mints were discussed in detail on 15 November and 6, 20 and 27 December 1968. On 8 December 1968 our teacher spoke about the typology and chronology of the coins issued by the Illyrian king Genthios from the mints of Lissos and Skodra. This was followed by a lecture on Dyrrhachian coins, especially those struck under Monounios. The examinations of numismatics and epigraphy were in the same manner a special event. One was supposed to appear in suit and tie, and woe behold anyone who not only did not respect this rule but in addition showed a poor knowledge of the subject. One young man had to change the faculty, after he had turned up at his first exam with Professor Rendić-Miočević in jeans and t-shirt and in addition knew nothing whatsoever, while Professor Rendić-Miočević, in spite of unbearable heat, was dressed in a dark suit with a suitable tie. Normally the first sign that something was wrong were the muscles on his jaws which started working – it was a sign that either your knowledge was poor or that you had done or said something that upset him – in such a situation it was highly recomendable to leave the room as soon as possible. Professor Rendić-Miočević’ s bibliography is considerable, and the number of papers on numismatics amazing. It is very fortunate that in 1989 most of his, widely scattered articles were published in one volume (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1989), thus facilitating our access to them. Some articles were translated from foreign languages into Croatian. Professor Rendić-Miočević published some articles on general numismatics, chiefly for various lexica or encyclopaedias (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1965) and only a few articles dealing with Roman numismatics. His first article dealt with two hoards of Roman imperial coins from Dugopolje in Dalmatia (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1949) – a hoard of sesterii from Kočinje Brdo and a small hoard of antoniniani from Dugopolje. This was reviewed by the late Baron Zmajić in the Numizmatičke vijesti (No.5/1953: 122-123). In 1953 Stjepan Hrčić, the person who drew attention to the Celtic coin hoard of Samobor (in fact Okić), published an article dealing with a copper medallion with an inscription and a stylized horse in the middle, he thought to have belonged to the Illyrian tribe of Jasi (cf. Aquae Jasae, i.e. Varaždinske Toplice) and which was supposedly found somewhere on the slopes of Samobor hills (Numizmatika, 5, 1953: 10-12 + Pl. I, No.11). D. Rendić-Miočević then analyzed this medallion and its nonsensical inscription and proved that it was a small cult object, inspired in the first place by Illyrian barbaric imitations of Macedonian coins, but Roman ones as well. He dated this medallion to the Roman period (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ1968). Another article on Roman numismatics was written late in Professor Rendić-Miočević’ s life in the volume of the Zagreb Vjesnik, dedicated to the late Ksenija Vinski-Gasparini – it dealt with Illyrian and Pannonian reminiscences on the inscriptions of various coins dating from the late 1st to the 3rd c. A.D. (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1990). In this article the author assembled inscriptions, classfied into four main groups: A. Ethnographico-ethnonymica (Delmaticus, Illyricum, Illyricus, Illyricianus, Pannonicus), B. Geographica (Illyricum, Danuvius, Pannonia, Pannoniae, Siscia), C. Res militaris (Exercitus Delmaticus, Exercitus Illyricus) and D. Metallorum fertilitas (Metalli Delmatici, Metalli Pannonici, Dardanici). The main preoccupation and his life's interest in the field of numismatics was reserved for the Graeco-Illyrian coins (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1965a ; 1966 ; 1976a ; 1976b ; 1983 ; 1988), which bear all the hallmarks of those of the Greek city-states, but incorporate a certain amount of Illyrian influence. Coins were issued from mints established in the Greek and Illyrian cities of Herakleia, Korkyra, Issa, Pharos, Rhizon (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1976), Damastion, Apollonia, Dyrrhachion, Lissos, Skodra, by various indigenous tribes (the Daorsoi, Labeatai), and by rulers (Monounios, Mytilos, Genthios and Ballaios). All this was studied and dealt with by the late Professor Rendić-Miočević and not on only one occasion. Numismatic evidence was always referred to in other texts also, which we cannot quote here because of the lack of space. He knew how rewarding the study of names was both for epigraphy and numismatics (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1971). It is of real importance that he brought the Graeco-Illyrian coinage to the attention of scholars all over the world, starting in 1953 (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1959 – the International Numismatic Congress was held in Paris between 6 and 11 July 1953). He also upheld excellent contacts with our Albanian colleagues, in spite of the unfavourable political circumstances following the Second World War, and was able to follow the literature published in that country. I am sure that Duje Rendić-Miočević's studies of the Graeco-Illyrian coinage would be an excellent topic for a doctoral thesis. The oldest coins known from the central Adriatic coast were struck in the town of Herakleia (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1953). The exact position of this site remains an enigma. Was the town located on the island of Hvar or Korčula? Wherever it awaits discovery, its mint struck bronze coins in three denominations following Syracusan standards, with the head of a young Herakles and lion’ s skin on the obverse and with Greek inscriptions of abbreviated forms of Herakleia. More rare is the second fundamental type with the head of Artemis on the obverse and a dolphin on the reverse. As is frequently the case with Graeco-Illyrian coins, overstrikes are common (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1979 ; 1983: 8-9). On many of these one can clearly read Δ I(M). On the obverse there is the Zeus' head and the she-goat on the reverse (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1979 ; 1983:9-10). The rarest Graeco-Illyrian issues were struck in the 3rd century BC at Korkyra on the island of Korčula, another early colony founded in the Adriatic by the Knidians (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1953). A further colony was later founded on the same island by the Issaeans. These two towns may well conform to the two recorded ancient sites of Vela Luka and Lumbarda. The island is often described as Black Korkyra, but this term refers to the island itself, which was covered by dense forests in antiquity, and not to the city. Josip Brunšmid, director of the Zagreb Archaeological Museum from 1893-1924 and the finest expert in Graeco-Illyrian coinage before Rendić-Miočević, ascribed only one type of bronze coin to Korkyra. On the obverse is the head of Apollo and on the reverse an ear of wheat or barley with a legend naming the city. Two other cities, Pharos and Issa, however, produced multiple issues. Relatively rich issues emanated from the Parian colony of Pharos, founded in 385/4 BC in a very deep bay on the island of Hvar, which provided the settlers with an excellent port. The remains of the Greek city are covered by medieval Stari Grad and the entire fertile valley spreading from the harbour into the island’ s hinterland still preserves the ancient division of land layout in square plots. The quantity of surviving Pharian coins, dating from the 4th to 3rd centuries BC, is quite large, although certain types are very rare, such as the silver tetrobols. Bronze was struck in four denominations: one unit and its parts ; one half ; one quarter ; and one sixth. The main types depict Zeus/she-goat ; Persephone/she-goat ; Artemis/she-goat ; Dionysos/grape ; Dionysos/kantharos. A wide variety of coin types were struck at Issa between the 4th and mid-2nd century BC. P. Vison&agrave ; has recorded about 650 specimens of Issaean coins, more than half of which are in Croatian museums and private collections. Here too the reverse ‘ advertises’ the economy of the island: she-goats, stags, does, grapes with vine leaves, amphorae, and kantharoi, with inscriptions on the obverse. Sometimes the Issaeans reused Syracusan and Pharian coins as flans for their strike. The first series begins with the so-called IONIO types (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1979) featuring on the reverse a male head facing right and a plain dolphin, or dolphin jumping over the waves, or a lion’ s head facing or turned to the right. Ionio is the old Doric genitive of Ionios, and on one inscription found at Vis this island is described as the Island of Ionios, which led F. Imhoof Blumer and J. Brunšmid to conclude that Ionios was the mythic eponymos of the Ionian Gulf. D. Rendić-Miočević held a different opinion, suggesting Ionios was a real person (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1970). The IONIO issues were followed by different types of bronze coins, such as: Hera’ s head/ dolphin, nymph’ s head/ star, Athena’ s head/ she-goat, Heracles’ head/ stag, amphora/ grape and vine-leaves, Heracles’ head/ kantharos, female head/ kantharos, sometimes turned to the right or left, with or without inscriptions. In the 2nd century BC the Illyrian city of Rhizon, issued silver and bronze coins, which are extremely rare today. The silver coins depicted the Macedonian shield on the obverse and Pegasus on the reverse, and on a smaller denomination the Macedonian shield and a star. In the second half of the 2nd century BC bronze coins were struck with the head of Zeus on the obverse and the legend PI/ZO within a wreath on the reverse and with the head of a beardless male or even female head on the obverse and Artemis or Hecate and the legend PIZONI/TAN on the reverse. The style and execution of these coins are somewhat primitive. Other Illyrian towns known to have struck coins included Lychnidos (Ohrid) on the lake of Ohrid, Lissos (Lesh) (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1985), and Skodra (Shkodër). The bronze coins of Lychnidos bear the Macedonian shield on one side and the prow of a ship on the other. Coins of Lissos (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1983: 10-13). dating from the last quarter of the 3rd century BC and the second half of the 2nd century BC can be divided into several periods and six types (with inscriptions): she-goat/ thunderbolt, shield/ helmet, Artemis/ thunderbolt: Artemis/ hunderbolt, Gentios/ galley (under Genthius) ; Hermes/ galley (under the Roman domination after the fall of Genthius). The four types of coins from Skodra can be divided into three main periods and depict Zeus/ galley, Macedonian shield/ helmet, Macedonian shield/ galley, Genthius/ galley, Zeus/ galley. The town’ s name appears on those coins which were not struck under Genthius. The last type was struck after the Romans imposed their rule in the area in 168 BC and bear the names of magistrates. All these types of coins of both Skodra and Lissos were analyzed by Rendić-Miočević in connection with the issues of king Genthius (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1969 ; 1970 ; 1973). Two Illyrian tribes also isssued their own coins: the Daorsoi (who lived near the Neretva and had their capital at Osanići) and the Labiatai (or Labeatae, living near Lake Shkodër ; cf. RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1973a) issued coins during a short period, probably after the fall of Genthius. Both series of bronze coins are similar and show the head of a young man wearing a cap (Hermes) on the obverse and a galley on the reverse. Turning to coins struck by various Illyrian rulers (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1967), the name of Monounios (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1981) accompanied with the title of king appears on fine staters or silver tridrachms of Dyrrhachium. Monounios seems to have reigned c. 300-280 BC. A tetradrachm with Heracles’ head/ Zeus, minted after the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC), also bears his name. Written sources refer to two Monounioi, one Dardanian and one Illyrian, but it seems that they were one and the same person. Another exceptional testimony to the existence of this king is a bronze helmet with his name inscribed on it found a century ago near Lake Ohrid, preserved today in the Berlin Museum. This king seems to have had a son whose name was Mytilos or Mytilios. Some bronze coins of Dyrrhachium feature the head of Herakles with a lion’ s skin, and the associated legend translates as ‘ [coin] of king Mytilos’ . On one occasion Professor Rendić-Miočević published coins of Illyrian rulers from the Zagreb Archaeological Museum Numismatic Collection (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1973). They are a silver stater or tridrachm of king Monounios (c. 280 BC), a small worn bronze of king Mytilos (c. 270 BC), a worn bronze coin of Lissons (of the PHΔ Ω Ν type (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1983: 10-13), or king Genthios’ (180-168 B.C.), and coins of king Ballaios from the mint of Rhizon (after 168 B.C.) Genthios (c. 197-168 BC) was an Illyrian king defeated and captured by the Romans with his fabulous treasure containing 120, 000 pounds of silver (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1969 ; 1970a): “ Transtulit in triumpho multa militaria signa spoliaque alia et supellectilem regiam, auri pondo viginti et septem, argenti decem et novem pondo, denarium decem tria milia, et centum viginti milia Illyrii argenti… ” Only one silver issue allegedly attributed to his reign, struck at Dyrrhachium, survives. His bronze coins minted in Lissos and Skodra are less well known. On the obverse is a bust Genthios wearing a cap (kausia) and a ship on the reverse. Both are inscribed. The last name name of an Illyrian king appearing on Graeco-Illyrian coinage is Ballaios (c. 167-35 BC), who is otherwise completely unknown historically (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1964 ; 1967a ; 1985a ; 1987). This series exemplifies just how important numismatics are to history. Whilst coins of the kings mentioned above are scarce, bronze coins of Ballaios are surprisingly numerous and widely distributed. He seems to have reigned after the defeat of Genthios in 168 BC, although some scholars tried to date his coins earlier, which was disputed by Rendić-Miočević (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1985a). Ballaios did not chose his seat in Skodra or Lissos, but settled in Rhizon, once Queen Teuta’ s capital. On the obverse of his coins is his bare-headed portrait, turned to the right or left. The legend on the reverse of his coins, depicting Artemis or Hecate with a torch in her right hand, walking or standing right, appears in two different forms (as well as corrupted versions). The shorter occurs on the bulk of his coins found on the island of Hvar and seem to originate from the mint at Pharos, while the longer inscription with regal title is represented on most specimens found in the south of the region and seems to derive from the Rhizon mint. Once again, however, opinion on this matter is divided. Besides the high quality examples are many barbarous imitations with mainly illegible legends, leading to the suspicion that some of his contemporaries, as well as his successors, produced imitations. There are also a few rare silver issues of this ruler. One was found at Risan in 1958 and was kept in a private collection, whereas the second, very finely preserved specimen from the Berlin Coin Cabinet was once owned by Imhoof-Blumer (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1967a). A hoard of Ballaios' and some other Greek coins, also found at Risan and once property of Gjuro Krasnov, was also published by D. Rendić-Miočević (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ, D. 1987). Duje Rendić-Miočević not only taught numismatics and wrote texts on numismatics. At the I. Numismatic Symposium, held in Zagreb on 5 December 1965 he gave an analysis of what awaited numismatists in the future and what their work would be like (RENDIĆ-MIOČEVIĆ 1966). In addition he expressed his concern about the lack of numismatic staff in museums and collections. Unfortunately, this situation has only slightly changed for the better, because in Croatian museums of today there are six numismatists: in those days there was only one (Ivan Marović in Split). And this is too small a number for the amount of work. During his tenure as the director of the Zagreb Archaeological Museum (1966-1979), he was also the head of its Numismatic Department and was able to find job for two new curators for this large collection of more than 260.000 items. In 1966 he suceeded in transferring the entire collection to the Vranyczany-Hafner mansion (Zrinski Square No. 19), to the new premises for the cabinet on the ground floor, which had housed the Archaeological Seminar for several decades, until the new Faculty of Philosophy was built. The entire numismatic collection had been deposited in the vaults of a bank in Prague Street in Zagreb in the winter of 1945/46, when the Archaeological and Historical Museums had to leave the Academy Palace on Zrinski Square No. 11. In those days some individuals, among them members of the Croatian Numismatic Society (founded in 1928), launched an idea the results of which might have been a real disaster – namely the entire numismatic collection of the former Croatian National Museum was to be divided among several institutions, according to the material. Duje Rendić-Miočević was successful in preventing such a dispersal of the collection. The permanent numismatics exhibition (the only one in the country), located in the north rooms of the museum ground floor, was opened May 1978. When Professor Rendić-Miočević died, after the funeral his friend and colleague, the late Professor Mate Suić uttered a very wise sentence: “ We all think there is plenty of time, but, in fact there isn’ t.”

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski, engleski

Znanstvena područja



Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb

Citiraj ovu publikaciju:

Mirnik, Ivan
Duje Rendić-Miočević the numismatist. Sažetak: Duje Rendić-Miočević kao numizmatičar // Illyrica antiqua. Ob honorem Duje Rendić-Miočević / Šegvić, Marina ; Mirnik, Ivan (ur.).
Zagreb: Odsjek za arheologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu ; Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu ; FF Press, 2005. str. 23-29 (predavanje, domaća recenzija, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), znanstveni)
Mirnik, I. (2005) Duje Rendić-Miočević the numismatist. Sažetak: Duje Rendić-Miočević kao numizmatičar. U: Šegvić, M. & Mirnik, I. (ur.)Illyrica antiqua. Ob honorem Duje Rendić-Miočević.
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