Napredna pretraga

Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 169788

Saborna crkva Vavedenja Presvete Bogorodice u Plaškom


Damjanović, Dragan
Saborna crkva Vavedenja Presvete Bogorodice u Plaškom, Zagreb: Srpsko kulturno društvo Prosvjeta, 2005 (monografija)


Naslov
Saborna crkva Vavedenja Presvete Bogorodice u Plaškom
(Cathedral Church of the Entrance into the Temple of Our Most Holy Mother of God in Plaški)

Autori
Damjanović, Dragan

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija knjige
Autorske knjige, monografija, znanstvena

Izdavač
Srpsko kulturno društvo Prosvjeta

Grad
Zagreb

Godina
2005

Stranica
260

ISBN
953-6627-77-9

Ključne riječi
Plaški; Gornjokarlovačka eparhija; barok; klasicizam; romantizam; historicizam; neobizantski stil; ruski stil; restauracija spomenika; pravoslavna crkva; Janko Holjac; Ivan Tišov; Marko Peroš; Mihailo Grujić; Dragutin Khuen-Hedervary
(Plaški; Dioecese of Upper Karlovac; Baroque; Classicism; Romanticism; Historicism; Byzantine Revival; Russian Style; Restauration of Monuments; Orthodox church; Janko Holjac; Ivan Tišov; Marko Peroš; Mihailo Grujić; Dragutin Khuen-Hedervary)

Sažetak
Knjiga donosi monografski pregled povijesti vladičanskog kompleksa u Plaškom - dvora i crkve, od njihova nastanka u 18. stoljeću do danas. Prati se stilski razvoj objekata, od njihove izgradnje u vremenu baroka i baroknog klasicizma, preko romantičarskih i historicističkih restauracija do popravaka u 20. stoljeću. Sve intervencije na objektima dovode se u širi povjesno-umjetnički, ali i povijesni te sociološki kontekst. Doseljavanje pravoslavnog stanovništva na područje Like i Krbave započelo je nakon turskih provala u prvoj polovini 16. stoljeća. Vrlo brzo počinju nastajati i prvi organizirani oblici vjerskog života, osobito nakon obnove Pećke patrijaršije. Već na samom početku 17. stoljeća osniva se prvi (i jedini) pravoslavni manastir na ovom području – u Gomirju. Osamnaesto stoljeće obilježeno je konstantnom borbom protiv unije s katoličkom crkvom. Velikim porazom Osmanskog carstva u ratu 1683.-1699., i proširenjem austrijskog teritorija u Lici i Krbavi brojčano znatno ojačava pravoslavno stanovništvo u Monarhiji. Patrijarh Arsenije Čarojević, izbjegavši s djelom stanovništva s Kosova 1690., počinje raditi na učvršćivanju crkvene hijerarhije. Uspješno potiskuje unijate, te osniva nove crkvene dijeceze, među njima i Gornjokarlovačku. Granica ove eparhije ustaljuje se tek krajem 18. stoljeća, na područja Banske Hrvatske i Vojne Krajine južno od rijeke Kupe, uz malena odstupanja (dva pravoslavna sela u Kranjskoj, Bojanci i Marindol, ulazila su u njezin sastav, kao i dvije jadranske enklave – Rijeka i Trst). Eparhija je nosila naziv prema najvećem gradu i upravnom središtu unutar nje (ako se isključe spomenute pomorske enklave) – Karlovcu, no središte se nalazilo, nakon 1720-tih u Plaškom, malom mjestu na granici Like, Krbave i Gorskog Kotara. Prvu drvenu crkvu i dvor gradi vladika Danilo Ljubotina dvadesetih godina 18. stoljeća. Njegov imenjak, vladika Danilo Jakšić, zamjenjuje ovu privremenu, nereprezentativnu drvenu crkvu s novom velikom zidanom katedralom 1755. – 1763., koja stoji i danas. Grade je s jedne strane majstori iz Sarajeva, a s druge nepoznati kranjski inženjer, iz čega proizlazi hibridnost stila u kojem je podignuta. Velika longitudinalna crkva s masivnim baroknim svodovima, elegantnim korom dobiva tako tradicionalno trolisno svetište, te neuobičajen motiv deambulatorija – hodnika oko apside. Kako je vladičanski dvor u to vrijeme još uvijek drven ovaj je zidani hodnik vjerojatno služio kao arhiv i riznica za vrednije predmete. Izgradnja nove crkve znak je i materijalne i političke afirmacije gornjokarlovačkih vladika, no ona ne bi bila moguća bez velike pomoći sa strane, osobito iz Rusije. Novi zidani jednokatni barokno – klasicistički dvor grade Jakšićevi nasljednici vladike Petar Petrović i Jovan Jovanović 80- tih godina 18. stoljeća. Podižu ga po planovima Josipa Stillera, tada vjerojatno najznačajnijeg graditelja na tlu hrvatskog dijela Vojne Krajine. Napoleonski ratovi na prijelazu iz 18. u 19. stoljeće dugo su vremena onemogućili veće intervencije na kompleksu. Tek u trećem desetljeću 19. stoljeća, ponovno će uslijediti veće adaptacije. Za vladike Mijokovića, 1822. godine, u crkvu se postavlja novi, raskošni, barokno – klasicistički ikonostas, a kompleksu dvora dodaje se zgrada klerikalnog učilišta za obrazovanje svećenstva u Eparhiji. Mijokovićev nasljednik, vladika Lukijan Mušicki, prvi je pravi intelektualac na čelu Gornjokarlovačke eparhije. Književnik i prevodilac, nije mogao podnijeti izoliranost mjesta, te privremeno ostvaruje želju svojih prethodnika i preseljava se u Karlovac. Materijalne prilike onemogućile su preseljenje za stalno, budući da se nisu mogla namaknuti sredstva za izgradnju novog dvora u tom gradu. Za vladike Mušickog obnavlja se dvor, dograđuje se raskošni barokno– klasicistički balkon iznad ulaza, a mijenja se i unutrašnji raspored prostorija. Zahvaljujući vrijednom plaščanskom proti Rafailu Bunčiću dolazi 1834. i do manje restauracije Saborne crkve. Tek 50 – tih godina 19. stoljeća, za vladike Sergija Kaćanskog, gornjokarlovački se vladike definitivno vraćaju iz Karlovca natrag u Plaški. U skladu s tim poduzima se najprije 1857. godine veća obnova dvora. Pri tom nastaju nerealizirani romantičarski projekti zagrebačkog arhitekta Janka Grahora za preoblikovanje njegova pročelja. Ubrzo potom, u prvoj polovini šezdesetih godina, na incijativu tadašnjeg plaščanskog prote Samuila Popovića, dolazi i do temeljite opravke crkve. Stari se ikonostas pozlaćuje, izrađuju se nova prijestolja, propovjedaonica, pijevnice i stolice u crkvi od zagrebačkog stolara Mathiasa Stampfera. Istodobno, obnavlja se vanjska fasada, a građevina se iznutra oslikava, vjerojatno dekorativnim motivima. Sljedeća veća intervencija na građevini događa se 1880., za vladike Teofana Živkovića, kada se na toranj crkve postavlja sat. Današnji izgled crkva, međutim, duguje najvećim djelom historicističkoj restauraciji izvedenoj 1903. – 1907. godine za vladike Mihaila Grujića. Vladika Grujić na čelo Eparhije došao je zahvaljujući vezanosti za vladu Khuena – Hedervaryja. Veze s vlasti u Zagrebu donijele su veliku materijalnu potporu gornjokarlovačkoj eparhiji – obnavljaju se i iznova grade brojne crkve, te naposljetku i katedrala. Restauraciju plaščanske Saborne crkve valja postaviti u kontekst drugih velikih restauracija u Hrvatskoj tada – zagrebačke katedrale, sabornih hramova u Križevcima i Pakracu, restauracije crkve manastira Grgetega na Fruškoj Gori ili parohijske crkve u Bjelovaru. Planove za arhitektonsko preoblikovanje građevine radi zagrebački arhitekt Janko Holjac, učenik glavnog bečkog neogotičara Friedricha Schmidta. Stil koji pri tom primjenjuje za ova je područja prilično neuobičajen – ruski stil, s primjesama elemenata koje pri restauraciji pravoslavnih crkvi koristi glavni arhitekt hrvatskog historicizma, Hermann Bollé. Unutrašnjost pokazuje bitno drukčije rješenje – stara barokna artikulacija zidova se čuva, na nju sjeda novi zidni oslik prema projektu zagrebačkog slikara i profesora na Obrtnoj školi, Marka Peroša. Obnova završava podizanjem novog, raskošnog ikonostasa i ostale unutrašnje drvenarije. Nacrte za unutrašnju opremu sastavlja zagrebački arhitekt Vinko Rauscher, još jedan Schmidtov učenik, tada zaposlen kod Građevinskog odsjeka hrvatske Zemaljske vlade. Ikone na ikonostasu i stolovima radi pak tada jedan od najuglednijih slikara, Ivan Tišov. Ikonografski program kako zidnog oslika, tako i ikonostasa, pažljivo je sastavljen od vladike Grujića. U periodu između dva svjetska rata Plaški zahvaća nova stagnacija – materijalnih sredstava za željeno preseljenje u Karlovac nema. Jedina veća intervencija na kompleksu ograničava se na proširenje dvora. Nakon početka Drugog svjetskog rata na tlu Kraljevine Jugoslavije, utemeljenjem Nezavisne Države Hrvatske Gornjokarlovačko Vladičanstvo se privremeno ukida, a umjetnine i arhivski spisi iz dvora i crkve, evakuiraju se srećom u Zagreb, te tako preživljavaju rat. Crkva stradava u bombardiranju 1942., godine, koje uništava dio krova u svetištu i brodu. Voda koja godinama prodire u građevinu uništava dobar dio oslika. Svetište i krov crkve obnavljaju se krajem 50 – tih, da bi, krajem 80 – tih počela nova generalna obnova građevine u kojoj je, nažalost, u potpunosti obijen stari historicistčki oslik. U posljednjem ratu nestao je dio slika s ikonostasa. Crkva u Plaškom danas se nalazi u izuzetno lošem stanju, te zahtjeva temeljitu obnovu kako bi joj se vratio stari sjaj.

Izvorni jezik
Hrvatski

Znanstvena područja
Arhitektura i urbanizam, Povijest umjetnosti, Znanost o umjetnosti

Napomena
Summary: This book is a monograph on an art historical account of the episcopal complex in Plaški. It deals with the period of its founding in the 18th century until the present day. Orthodox Christians started to populate the area of Lika and Krbava after the Turkish invasion in the first half of the 16th century. Soon after they arrived, the first formation of organized religion began to appear and was enhanced by the restoration of the patriarchy in Peć. The first and the only orthodox monastery, which was founded at the end of the 17th century, was the one in Gomirje. The 18th century saw constant fighting against uniting with the Catholic Church. The crushing defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the 1683 &#8211 ; ; ; 1699 war and the expansion of the Austrian territory to Lika and Krbava led to an increase in orthodox population in the Monarchy. The patriarch Arsenije Čarojević, who fled from Kosovo in 1690, started engaging himself in consolidating the church hierarchy. He successfully suppressed the Uniates (Eastern-rite Catholics) and established new dioceses which included the diocese of Upper Karlovac. Around the end of the 18th century the borders of the eparchy in the area of Civil Croatia (Banska Hrvatska) and the Croatian Military Frontier (Vojna Krajina) south of the Kupa river began to take a more permanent shape. However, some territories outside the afore mentioned area belonged to the eparchy, namely, two orthodox villages in the province of Kranj, Bojanci and Marindol (now in Slovenia) and the two Adriatic enclaves of Rijeka and Trieste. The eparchy bore the name of Karlovac which was, if the Adriatic marital enclaves are not taken into consideration, its biggest town and administrative centre. However, after 1720s a little town bordering Lika, Krbava and Gorski Kotar by the name of Plaški became the centre of the eparchy. Bishop Danilo Ljubotina built the first wooden church in Plaški in the 1730s. His namesake, Danilo Jukšić, replaced the wooden structure with the stone-built cathedral between 1735 and 1763, which still stands today. The hybrid style of the building is the result of two groups of builders &#8211 ; ; ; those from Sarajevo and an unknown civil engineer from the province of Kranj, Slovenia. The large building of a linear plan with massive baroque vaults and elegant choir is given a traditional triple-apse ending and an unusual element, an ambulatory, the corridor around the main apse. Since the bishop&#8217 ; ; ; s residence was at that time still a wooden building, the corridor probably served as an archive and treasury for valuable objects. The construction of the new church marked the financial and political affirmation of the bishop of Upper Karlovac. However, it would not have been possible to achieve all that without a lot of support from abroad, especially from Russia. A new one-floor residence in mixed neo-classical and baroque style was built from stone in the 1780s by Jakšić&#8217 ; ; ; s successors, bishops Petar Petrović and Jovan Jovanović. It was executed according to the plans of Josip Stiller who was probably the most notable civil engineer in the area of the Croatian Military Frontier at the time. The Napoleonic wars at the end of the 19th century prevented any kind of major construction on the complex from being done. During the 1820s considerable adaptations were undertaken on the complex. In 1882, during the episcopy of bishop Mijaković, the church was given a new, lavish iconostasis in mixed neo-classical and baroque style and the complex was enriched with a building for the education of the clerics in the eparchy. Mijaković&#8217 ; ; ; s successor, bishop Lukijan Mušicki was the first intellectual at the head of the eparchy of Upper Karlovac. As a writer and translator, Mušicki could not stand the isolation of Plaški so he moved to Karlovac, hence realising the wish of his predecessors, though only temporarily, since the eparchy&#8217 ; ; ; s financial circumstances did not allow the construction of a new residence in the town. During the episcopy of bishop Mušicki a richly decorated balcony made in mixed neo-classical baroque style was added above the entrance of the Plaški residence and the interior disposition of the rooms was altered. Owing to the diligent dean of Plaški, Rafael Bunčić, minor restoration work was carried out on the cathedral in 1834. In the 1850s, during the episcopy of bishop Sergij Kaćanski, the bishops of the Upper Karlovac eparchy permanently returned from Karlovac to Plaški . As a result, the residence was renovated. In the process of the renovation architect Janko Grahor made plans in the spirit of romanticist revival for the reshaping of the façade. However, the plans were never executed. Soon after that, in the first half of the 1950s, Dean Samuil Popović initiated the repair of the church. The old iconostasis was gilded and Mathias Stampfer, a carpenter from Zagreb, made new seats, a pulpit, choir stalls and chairs for the church. The façade was repaired and the interior walls painted, possibly with decorative motifs. The following major construction on the building took place in 1880 during the episcopy of bishop Teofan Živković when a clock was placed on the bell tower of the church. The church owes its present-day appearance to a historicist style of restoration carried out from 1903 &#8211 ; ; ; 1907 during the episcopy of bishop Mihajlo Grujić. As a result of the loyalty to Khuen Hedervary&#8217 ; ; ; s government Grujić assumed the leading position in the eparchy. Connections with the government in Zagreb brought the eparchy of Upper Karlovac substantial financial support, which resulted in restoration works, and the construction of new church buildings. The restoration of the cathedral in Plaški should be placed in the context of other big restoration undertakings in Croatia at the time &#8211 ; ; ; the cathedral in Zagreb, orthodox cathedrals in Križevci and Pakrac, the restoration of the church in Grgeteg monastery complex in Fruška Gora or the parochial church in Bjelovar. Plans for the architectural reshaping of the buildings were made by architect Janko Holjac, a student of the leading architect of the neo-gothic style in Vienna, Friedrich Schmidt. The style he used for buildings in the eparchy was quite unusual &#8211 ; ; ; an admixture of a Russian style and elements which were used in the restoration of orthodox churches by the main architect of the Croatian revival of historical styles, Herman Bolle. The interior was of completely different stylistic features than the exterior &#8211 ; ; ; old baroque openings in walls had been preserved and they had a layer of wall paintings of a later date, a project of Marko Peroš, the painter and teacher at the Trade School in Zagreb. The end of renovation works was marked by the installation of a new and lavish iconostasis and other wooden church furniture. The design of the furniture were made by architect Vinko Raucher from Zagreb, another Schmidt follower, who was at the time employed at the Civil Engineering Department of the Croatian National Government. One of the most notable painters of the period, Ivan Tišov, painted the icons on the back of the seats and iconostasis but it was bishop Grujić who provided the iconographic programme. In the period between the two world wars Plaški was overtaken by stagnation and the plans to move to Karlovac had to be abandoned again due to the lack of means. The only somewhat important architectural construction undertaken in this time on the complex was the expansion of the residence. The beginning of the Second World War on the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the newly established Independent State of Croatia (NDH) brought death to the complex in Plaški. The eparchy temporarily seized to exist. The works of art and the archival documents from the church and the residence were transported to Zagreb where they were stored during the war. In 1942, bombing destroyed the church leaving the roof of the sanctuary and the nave in ruins. Water, which has been leaking through the roof, has destroyed a large part of the wall paintings. The sanctuary and the roof of the church were renovated at the end of the 1950s and at the end of the 1980s large scale renovation completely destroyed the old historicist wall paintings. Some of the icons from the iconostasis have disappeared in the last war. Today, the church in Plaški is in very poor condition and demands thorough renovation in order to bring the old splendour back.



POVEZANOST RADA


Projekt / tema
0130491

Ustanove
Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb

Autor s matičnim brojem:
Dragan Damjanović, (264970)