Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 15258
Profilaksa jodom i nuklearne nesreće
Profilaksa jodom i nuklearne nesreće // Zbornik radova Četvrtog simpozija Hrvatskog društva za zaštitu od zračenja / Obelić, Bogomil ; Franić, Zdenko (ur.).
Zagreb: HDZZ - Hrvatsko društvo za zaštitu od zračenja, 1998. str. 303-308 (predavanje, domaća recenzija, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), znanstveni)
Profilaksa jodom i nuklearne nesreće
(Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents)
Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u zbornicima skupova, cjeloviti rad (in extenso), znanstveni
Zbornik radova Četvrtog simpozija Hrvatskog društva za zaštitu od zračenja / Obelić, Bogomil ; Franić, Zdenko - Zagreb : HDZZ - Hrvatsko društvo za zaštitu od zračenja, 1998, 303-308
Četvrti simpozij Hrvatskog društva za zaštitu od zračenja
Mjesto i datum
Zagreb, Hrvatska, 11-13.11.1998
Iodine is a highly volatile element therefore being very mobile in the environment. It enters the metabolism of living organisms and is selectively taken up and concentrated in the thyroid gland. The plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive material that might be released in the environment in the case of a serious nuclear accident, primarily consists of the radioactive isotopes of iodine. Among those, due to its decay properties, is the most important 131I. The effective means of protecting the thyroid gland against exposure to radioactive iodine is an intake of stable iodine. Therefore, one of the central issues in the emergency planning is to determine whether and at which projected thyroid radiation dose stable iodine should be given to the population. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set the generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis to 100 mGy of avertable committed dose to a thyroid.The prophylaxis is implemented by utilizing the pills of pills of potassium iodine (KI). The efficacy of KI in protecting the thyroid gland depends upon the time of intake relative to the start of exposure to radioactive iodine. The best results are obtained if KI is taken 1-2 hours before or immediately after the start of exposure. The recommended dosage, based upon the study performed by Il'in et.al. is 130 mg/day. KI should be taken at least three days after the acute exposure to radioiodine, to prevent accumulation in a thyroid gland of radioiodine excreted from the other compartments of the body. The largest epidemiological study on the effects of KI prophylaxis ever performed was the one in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine was given as single dose of KI solution to 10.5 million of children and 7 millions of adults. Among children no serious side effects were seen while only two adults (with previously recorded iodine sensitivity) had severe respiratory distresses. Polish experiences showed that rapid response to such widespread nuclear accident is as much a social problem as well as a medical or scientific one, requiring rapid organization of large number of people and facilities. In USA, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recently decided (summer 1998) that NRC would financially support the stockpiling of the KI pills, if federal states decide to stockpile them. Previously, NRC recommended that potassium iodine be available mainly for emergency workers, but not stored for general public. In order to protect the general public in the case of a nuclear accident, The Republic of Croatia should consider the optimal way of KI prophylaxis and implement the detailed procedure in emergency plans. It would be recommended to identify those persons with iodine sensitivity, which could be achieved through a public health care system.
Javno zdravstvo i zdravstvena zaštita