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UNEP/GEF Project regional based assessment of persistent toxic substances - European regional report


Holoubek, Ivan; Alcock, Ruth; Brorstrom-Lunden, E.; Petrosjan, Valeryj; Roots, Ott; Shatalov, Victor; Kocan, Anton; Cupr, Pavel; Holoubkova, Irena
UNEP/GEF Project regional based assessment of persistent toxic substances - European regional report // Organohalogen compounds, Dioxin 2003 ; Environmental Levels, Emerging POPs, Site Assessment / Hunt, Gary ; Clement, Ray (ur.).
Boston, Massachusetts, USA: RPJ Associates, Massachusetts, USA, 2003. str. 436-439


Naslov
UNEP/GEF Project regional based assessment of persistent toxic substances - European regional report

Autori
Holoubek, Ivan ; Alcock, Ruth ; Brorstrom-Lunden, E. ; Petrosjan, Valeryj ; Roots, Ott ; Shatalov, Victor ; Kocan, Anton ; Cupr, Pavel ; Holoubkova, Irena

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Poglavlja u knjigama, pregledni

Knjiga
Organohalogen compounds, Dioxin 2003 ; Environmental Levels, Emerging POPs, Site Assessment

Urednik/ci
Hunt, Gary ; Clement, Ray

Izdavač
RPJ Associates, Massachusetts, USA

Grad
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Godina
2003

Raspon stranica
436-439

ISBN
3-928379-16-X

Ključne riječi
POPs, PTS, Europe

Sažetak
Based on the Stockholm Convention which was signed in 2001, scientifically-based assessment of the nature and scale of the threats to the environment and its resources posed by persistent toxic substances were performed. The assessment was led to the identification of priorities for intervention, and through application of a root cause analysis was attempted to identify appropriate measures to control, reduce or eliminate releases of PTS, at national, regional or global levels. Based on this approach, the GEF and UNEP Chemicals prepared project “ Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances” The basic project topics were focused on identification of major sources of PTS at the regional level ; impact of PTS on the environment and human health ; assessment of trans-boundary transport of PTS ; assessment of the root causes of PTS related problems, and regional capacity to manage these problems ; identification of regional priority PTS related environmental issues ; and identification of PTS related priority environmental issues at the global level. To achieve these results, the globe is divided into 12 regions. The twelve regions were selected based on obtaining geographical consistency while trying to reside within financial constraints. Region III – Europe was consisted by 29 countries of Western, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe, the member countries of EU and many countries with economy in transition. Region III has a lot of information concerning to the sources and environmental levels of PTS, but geographic distribution of the available data is not equal for all parts of Region, better situation is in some countries of EU and Central Europe. • Within the Region as a whole there is a large amount of data relating to industrial point source emissions to the atmosphere. Sources to air of well studied compounds such as PAHs, PCBs, and PCDDs/Fs are generally well characterised and inventories have been calculated and updated regularly via EMEP. Due to restrictions on the manufacturing and more stringent control of releases, emissions from primary sources have been declining during the last 20 years. Understanding of secondary source inputs and the potential for environmental recycling of individual compounds continues to be limited and few measurements are available. • Region III has a lot of information concerning to environmental levels of PTS, but geographic distribution of the available data is not equal for all parts of Region, better situation is in some countries of EU and Central Europe. • Very good and traditional monitoring system concerning also PTS exists (EN ECE EMEP, OSPAR, HELCOM) which are oriented to air and deposition (EMEP), seas (OSPAR, HELCOM) ; some new are ongoing (Caspic Sea, Black Sea). As far as rivers, the monitoring is realised mainly based on the national level, but a lot of multinational or regional activities already exist (Rhine, Danube). • The measurements of PTS levels in some other compartments such as lakes, soils or vegetation is partly performed based on the international programmes (IM EMEP), national monitoring programmes (soils) or pilot or research projects (biota, lakes). Human exposure is measured and studied on the European levels (activities WHO Europe) and very frequently on the national levels. Over the last 10-15 years as interest in exposure to these compounds has increased there have been numerous surveys of both typical ‘ background’ levels in the population and also small surveys of occupationally exposed individuals whose body lipids contain elevated concentrations. Compounds are most often monitored in human milk, serum and adipose although milk monitoring is far more widely practiced due to the relative ease of sample collection. Evidence from market basket surveys of principal foods and food groups suggest that exposure to many of the classical PTS compounds via food is very similar throughout the Region. European exposure to dioxins via food has declined considerably during the last decades. This is due to successful efforts that have led to the reduction of many known dioxin sources. Today the estimated intake by the European population of PCDDs/Fs and non-ortho PCBs, expressed as WHO-TEQs, is 1.2-3.0 pg.kg-1 bw.day-1.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Geologija



POVEZANOST RADA


Ustanove
Institut "Ruđer Bošković", Zagreb

Citiraj ovu publikaciju

Holoubek, Ivan; Alcock, Ruth; Brorstrom-Lunden, E.; Petrosjan, Valeryj; Roots, Ott; Shatalov, Victor; Kocan, Anton; Cupr, Pavel; Holoubkova, Irena
UNEP/GEF Project regional based assessment of persistent toxic substances - European regional report // Organohalogen compounds, Dioxin 2003 ; Environmental Levels, Emerging POPs, Site Assessment / Hunt, Gary ; Clement, Ray (ur.).
Boston, Massachusetts, USA: RPJ Associates, Massachusetts, USA, 2003. str. 436-439
Holoubek, I., Alcock, R., Brorstrom-Lunden, E., Petrosjan, V., Roots, O., Shatalov, V., Kocan, A., Cupr, P. & Holoubkova, I. (2003) UNEP/GEF Project regional based assessment of persistent toxic substances - European regional report. U: Hunt, G. & Clement, R. (ur.) Organohalogen compounds, Dioxin 2003 ; Environmental Levels, Emerging POPs, Site Assessment. Boston, Massachusetts, USA, RPJ Associates, Massachusetts, USA, str. 436-439.
@inbook{inbook, year = {2003}, pages = {436-439}, keywords = {POPs, PTS, Europe}, isbn = {3-928379-16-X}, title = {UNEP/GEF Project regional based assessment of persistent toxic substances - European regional report}, keyword = {POPs, PTS, Europe}, publisher = {RPJ Associates, Massachusetts, USA}, publisherplace = {Boston, Massachusetts, USA} }