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α-1 Antitrypsin Genotype-Phenotype Discrepancy in a 42-Year-Old Man Who Carries the Null-Allele


Pavičić, Tomislav; Ćelap, Ivana; Njegovan, Milena; Tešija Kuna, Andrea; Štefanović, Mario
α-1 Antitrypsin Genotype-Phenotype Discrepancy in a 42-Year-Old Man Who Carries the Null-Allele // Laboratory medicine, 50 (2019), 3; 31583408, 7 doi:10.1093/labmed/lmz059 (međunarodna recenzija, članak, znanstveni)


Naslov
α-1 Antitrypsin Genotype-Phenotype Discrepancy in a 42-Year-Old Man Who Carries the Null-Allele

Autori
Pavičić, Tomislav ; Ćelap, Ivana ; Njegovan, Milena ; Tešija Kuna, Andrea ; Štefanović, Mario

Izvornik
Laboratory medicine (0007-5027) 50 (2019), 3; 31583408, 7

Vrsta, podvrsta i kategorija rada
Radovi u časopisima, članak, znanstveni

Ključne riječi
α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, genotyping error, misclassification, null allele, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequencing

Sažetak
Background Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is a hereditary condition caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and associated with lung emphysema and liver disease. Laboratory testing in suspected A1AT deficiency involves quantifying serum A1AT concentration and identification of specific alleles by genotyping and phenotyping. The aim of this report was to present a case of the null allele carrier with consequent genotype/phenotype/concentration discrepancies and potential misclassification of the Z variant in a 42-year-old white man presenting with symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method Serum A1AT concentration was measured using an immunoturbidimetric assay. A1AT phenotype was determined using isoelectric focusing followed with immunofixation (IEF-IF). Genotyping specifically for the S and Z allele was performed by melting curve analysis using real- time PCR and checked by an alternative PCR-RFLP method. Genotype/phenotype ambiguity and discrepancy were amended using gene sequencing. Results Laboratory testing revealed highly reduced A1AT concentration (less than 0.30 g/L), mild to moderate deficient genotype (Pi*Z allele: M/Z and Pi*S allele: M/M) and severe deficient Z homozygous phenotype (Pi ZZ). After repeated sampling, the same discordant results were verified by these tests. Further sequencing revealed two clinically relevant and defective variants: rs199422210 (a rare null allele) and rs28929474 (the Z allele). Conclusion Due to inability of genotyping kit probes to detect null/Z allele combination (which mimics the Pi ZZ phenotype), our patient was misclassified as mild to moderate deficient Pi*MZ heterozygote. In all unclear cases, whole- gene sequencing is highly recommended in order to determine definitive cause of A1AT deficiency.

Izvorni jezik
Engleski

Znanstvena područja
Kliničke medicinske znanosti, Farmacija



POVEZANOST RADA


Ustanove
Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet, Zagreb,
KBC "Sestre Milosrdnice"

Časopis indeksira:


  • Current Contents Connect (CCC)
  • Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC)
    • Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXP)
    • SCI-EXP, SSCI i/ili A&HCI
  • Scopus
  • MEDLINE


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